Showing posts with label Al'adu (Traditions). Show all posts
Showing posts with label Al'adu (Traditions). Show all posts

Tuesday, 4 December 2018

ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA (KASHI NA UKU) DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO




ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(KASHI NA UKU)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Bunkasar Harshen Hausa
Abisa fahimta irin tamu, yaren hausa gamayya ce ta haifar dashi. Littafin Babil mai tsarki ya faɗi cewar shekaru da dama da suka gabata (misalin shekaru dubu takwas da suka gabata), mutanen duniya da harshe ɗaya kurum suke amfani, sai daga baya yaruka suka rinka samuwa ta yadda zuwa yanzu akwai kimanin yaruka dubu bakwai a faɗin duniyar nan. Ina tsammanin Littafin Alqur'ani maigirma bai yi magana irin wannan ba, amma duk da haka maganar data fito daga Babil na iya tabbatuwa a kimiyance tunda dai munsan cewa Allah Ubangiji ne ya saukar da littattafan duka guda biyu.
Samuwar harshen hausa na iya zamowa daga haɗakar kalmomi na waɗansu yaruka mabanbanta. Ma'ana, tana iya kasancewa karo-karon kalmomi daga yaruka daban-daban ne ya haɗu ya samar da yaren hausa kachokan ɗinsa, hakan kuwa na iya faruwa ne idan muka kalli hausawan su kansu zamuga cewa kabilu ne da dama suka cakuɗu suka rikiɗe tare da zamowa hausawa lokaci mai tsawo daya shuɗe.
Misali, bari mu ɗauki manyan garuruwan hausa mu ɗanyi karamin nazari akansu:-
A tarihin kafuwar kano, ance wani mai suna Dala ne ya fara zama akan wani dutse wanda daga bisani aka sanya masa suna dala. A hasashe, hakan ta faru tun a wajajen karni na bakwai. Littafin tarihin kano da ake kira 'Kano Chronicle' (Tarih baladil Laziy Musamma Kano) ya ruwaito kwatankwacin haka, har kuma ya rubuta a shafin farko "La na'alamu k'abilatihi'. Ma'ana, bamu san kabilar shi wannan Dala ɗinba wanda hakan ke nuna cewar sam-sam Dala ba Bahaushe bane. Hakan kuma na nuna cewa asalin kalmar Dala itama ba hausa bace.
Daga lokacin Dala da lokacin rayuwar zuriyarsa, kalmomi mabanbanta sun shigo cikin harshen hausa. Kamar misalin Girgije (Sunan Kakan Barbushe, kalmar kuma da hausawa ke nufin Hadari), Magaji daga Magajin Dala, da makamantansu.
Daga bisani akace Bagauda yazo Maɗatai ta kano ya kama noma. A bisa mafi rinjayen magana, Bagauda Bamaguje ne. Shima watakila Sunan kabilar sa Maguzawa, ko kuma sunan kabilar tasa ya zama yana da wani lakabi na zahiri na daban, amma an sakaya shine da sunan 'Maguzanci', kalmar da a hausa ake nufin mutanen da basu da addini. Daga wajen su kalmomi irinsu Noma, Guguwa, Hadari, Shekara da Shekarau suka fito. Waɗannan jinsi na maguzawa kuma, sune suka kafa kusan kafatanin tsoffin biranen dake kasar kano ayau, misalin Rano, Gaya, Gwarzo, Kiru da wasunsu. Koda yake, duk da muna da karancin fahimta akan jinsin Maguzawa, amma da alama suna iya zamowa kabilu mararraba tamkar yadda jinsin fulani suke ayau.
Sannan dai, a littafin 'Kano ta dabo', marubuci marigayi Alh Abubakar Dokaji (Allah ya gafarta masa amin) ya faɗi cewa a tsohuwar kano akwai kabilun Gazargawa dake zaune a jakara, Zadawa dake tsakanin jakara zuwa sontolo, Fangon dake tsakanin Sontolo da Burkum, Zaura dake tsakankanin Bompai da wasai, Dundunzuru dake tsakanin watari zuwa Ɗdutsen karya, Shiriya dake tsakanin sontolo zuwa Shinke, Sheme dake tsakanin Damargu zuwa kazaure, Tokarawa dake tsakanin karmami zuwa Ringim da wasunsu. Dukkan mafi rinjayen waɗannan kabilu sun haɗe guri ɗaya lokaci mai tsawo daya gabata, har takai yaren hausa kurum akeyi a kano, kuma a duk duniya idan kace kano, za'ace maka birnin Hausawa ne.
Mu kalli Katsina. Suma ance Durɓawa ne suka kafa garin tun a karni na sha uku. Wamban Katsina Alhaji Abba Khali ya taɓa faɗa a wata firar sa da gidan radiyon (RFi: Radio france international) cewa waɗanda suka kafa garin katsina sunzo ne daga wani gari mai suna Mani. Garin mani yana nan har yanzu a jihar katsina, to amma ana tsammanin mutanen garin Mani na farko ba hausawa bane, wata kabila ce wadda ta taso daga yankin Mali.
Haka abin yake a zaria. Littafin 'History of Zaria (1350-1902)' na Yakub Hassan ya nuna cewa asalin Birnin Zazzau mutane ne daga Kufena, kuchichchiri, Turanku, Madarkachi, Kargi da Tukur-Tukur sukayi haɗaka wajen kafashi.
Domin kuwa, duk kan waɗancan garuruwa tsoffin gurare ne da binciken akiyoloji ya tabbatar da wanzuwar mutane tun da jimawa kafin kafuwar zazzau a karni na sha uku, kuma akasari waɗancan mutanen kabilu ne mabanbanta misalin Kadarawa, da wasunsu, har dai daga bisani aka samu cewa kabilar Torankawa suka zo suka kwace iko da wurin. A yanzu kuma garin ya rikiɗe izuwa kasar hausa, masarautar su da al'adunsu duk na hausa ne. Suma dai Watakila jikokin waɗancan kabilun ne kusan zamu iyacewa suka ajiye yarukansu da al'adunsu tare da zamowa hausawa zuryan.
Itama kasar Damagaram (Zinder) wadda a yanzu da kasar hausa ake kiranta. Asalinta ance wani mafarauci ne mai suna Zundurma ya fara zama a wurin. Sannu a hankali Barnawa suka rinka kwararowa yankin saboda ance wajen ya kasance turbar kasuwanci ce, har kuma daga bisani aka samu karin kabilu mabanbanta waɗanda mafi akasari yanzu duk sun rikiɗe sun koma hausawa.
A hakika a cikin hausa ta yau akwai Barnawa da yawa. Yawan nasu ma bazai lissafu ba. Tunda an samu cewa akwai garuruwa da dama waɗanda bare-bari ne suka kafasu. yawa-yawan waɗancan bare-bari, wani dalilai ne ya taso dasu izuwa kasashen hausa, sai gashi kuma bayan zamani mai tsawo ya shuɗe, jikokin su duk sun zama hausawa, jinin jikinsu kaɗai ne na kanuri (duk da shima ya gauraya dana sauran kabilu) amma harshe da al'ada duk dana hausa suke amfani.
Irin waɗannan misalan ne a Daura, Zamfara, Gobir, Maraɗi da mafi yawan jihohin hausawa. Abin nema dai anan shine yaya akayi harshen hausa ya haɗiye yarukan waɗancan kabilu ta yadda a yanzu suka zama tarihi?
To, abisa ga falsafar marubucin tarihi Ibn Khaldun, ana gane abinda ya faru a baya ta hanyar fahimtar abinda ke faruwa a yanzu, sannan za'a iya gane menene zai faru anan gaba idan akayi duba na tsanaki bisa abubuwan dake faruwa a yanzu.
A saboda haka, nafi ganin abubuwa biyu ne manya wajen zamowa silar bunkasar harshen hausa.
Na farkon su shine rashin kyamar bakon (mutum) abu matukar bai zo da abu saɓanin fahimtar suba.
Na biyun su kuwa shine karɓar bako tare da maida shi ɗangida.
Ga abinda aka rubuta a Littafin 'waka a bakin mai ita' dangane da wannan:-
"Wani abin sha'awa shine, harshen hausa harshe ne mai iya karɓar kowanne irin salo da harshen larabci yazo dashi ya zauna daram-dam kamar anan aka halicce shi.."
Da yake littafin yana magana ne akan kamanceceniyar ma'aunan gwajin waka na larabci da namu na hausa, amma muna iya cewa wannan abin ba akan larabci da waka kaɗai ya tsaya ba. Domin idan za'a yi bincike za'a samu cewa harshen hausa yayi aro na kalmomi da hikimai daga yaruka mabanbanta, kuma sannu a hankali ya mayar da abinda ya aro ɗin ya zauna daram kamar daman tun can asali akwai shi.
A wani gagarumin bincike da akayi, Dr Aliyu Abubakar ya rubuta a littafinsa 'Al-thakafatul Arabiyya fi Nigeria' cewa yawan kalmomin larabci a cikin hausa sun kai kumusi. (kashi ɗaya bisa biyar, kamar ace aduk kalma biyar ta hausa, ɗaya daga larabci aka aro ta, to idan kuwa da za'a auna da sauran yaruka, da watakila aga wai ina ainihin hausar take?).
Ko kuma idan zamuyi hasashe, zamu iya duba cewar larabawa sun fara shigowa kasashen hausawa don mu'amala tun a wuraren karni na goma sha uku ne. Don haka muna iya cewa a iya shekaru ɗari bakwai na mu'amala tsakanin hausawa da larabawa (1300-2000), tarin kalmomin da hausa ta ara yakai 'khumusi'. Kenan, idan muka ɗauki wancan ma'aunin auna lamurori da Ibn Khaldun ya bamu zamu iyacewa daga karni na bakwai zuwa na goma sha uku (700-1300, wasu shekaru ɗari bakwai baya kenan), hausa ta ari wasu kalmomin da adadinsu zai iya riskar khumusi ko wani abu dake sama ko kasa da haka daga wasu harsunan waɗanda zuwa yanzu zaiyi wuya mu gane su..
A baya-bayan nan kuma,shigowar turawa zuryan da fara mu'amalar su a kasar hausa ta soma ne daga shekarar 1900. Zuwa yanzu Muna iya cewa yaren ingilishi ya shiga cikin hausa a iya waɗannan shekaru ɗari biyun da adadin kalmomi masu tarin yawa, tayadda zaka samu matasan mu zaiyi wuya suyi sa'a guda suna fira ba tare da sunyi amfani da kalmar aro ta ingilishi ba. Watakila kamar haka hausa ta soma a sauran yarukan, kuma muna iya cewa nan da shekaru ɗari biyar masu zuwa tsoffin kalmomin hausa da yawa na iya dulmiyewa tunda an samu musayarsu dana ingilishi.
Don haka, muna iya ganin cewa ɗaukacin kabilun dake tare da hausawa tun tale-tale sun rinka aron kalmomin hausa ne, yayin da suma kuma hausawa na dauri suka rinka aro kalmomi daga garesu, a haka har lokaci yayi da hausa ta haɗiye yawa-yawan yarukan, ta kuma mayarda yawa-yawan kalmomin aro mallakinta.
Watakila kuma saukin hausa wajen yarawa da arowar kalmomi yasa makwabtan hausawa suka fara koyon hausa a hankali-a hankali lokaci mai tsawo daya shuɗe har takai jallin da harshen hausa ya zame musu ɗan tsakiya wajen saduwa tsakanin kabilun dake da banbancin yare da juna.
Zuwa yanzu dai akwai kabilun da sun ma mance da ainihin harshensu, da hausa kurum suke amfani, yayin da wasu kuma suka rike nasu harshen suka kuma riki harshen hausa tayadda idan basuyi hankali ba, shekaru da dama masu zuwa harshen hausa zai haɗiye harshen nasu kamar yadda yayiwa waɗancan yaruka na baya.
Wannan a takaice na iya zama wani abin kamawa dangane da bunkasar harshen hausa a wannan yanki namu..
Zan tsaya anan.. Godiya da yabo ya tabbata ga Allah. Allah yyi daɗin tsira ga Annabi Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa sallam).

ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA (kashi na biyu) Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo




ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(kashi na biyu)
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
Faruwar wannan lamari yasa Gwamna Lugga ya tura sako ga kasarsu Ingila a rohoton da yake turawa gami da labarta musu abinda ya sami Kyaftin Moloney. Shine har yake faɗa musu cewa ba lalle ne ace tafintan Kyaftin Moloney da gayya yayi wannan kasassaɓar ba, amma watakila hakan ta faru ne saboda rashin samun wata fahimta da Kyaftin Moleney yayi dangane da yaren hausa tayadda har ya kasa tantance tsakanin abinda yake karantawa da abinda tafintan sa yake faɗa.
Don haka a karshe Lugga ya bada shawarar cewa a ganinsa mafitar kare aukuwar irin wannan hadari anan gaba shine turawan mulki 'yan uwansa su koyi hausa.
(D.J.M Muffet, concerning Brave Captain, London 1964.)
Ai kuwa hakan akayi, domin an samu cewa Ingila ta bada odar kowanne jami'inta ya fara koyon harshen hausa, an buga sanarwar fara yiwa jami'an mulkin mallaka jarabawar auna fahimtar harshen hausa a jaridar Northern Gazette ta ranar 30 ga watan satumbar shekarar 1902.
Sai dai, abu ne mai matukar wuya a gane wanda yafara rubuta hausa da haruffan romawa (Rubutun Boko) kasancewar bauta ta sanya hausawa sun shiga kasashen larabawa lokaci mai tsawo daya gabata, daga can kuma an tsallaka da wasu izuwa turai da sauran sassan duniya masu nisan gaske duk da zimmar yin bauta.
Kowa yasan anyi zamunna na cinikin bayi a baya, sannan shaharar masautar Borno ba karamar aba bace. Itace akace sarakunan ta sun shahara, har ma akace a wajajen karni na goma sha ɗaya suka fara hurɗa da larabawa, sannan kuma idan yakinsu ya motsa, mamaya suke kawowa dukkanin makwabtan kasashe, ciki kuwa harda kasar hausa. Tana iya kasancewa wani daga turawa ko girkawa ya taba jarraba amsar labaru daga wani bahaushe gami da rubutashi da romanci (boko) amma abin bai fito ga duniya har mun riske shi ba, amma dai mafi dadewar abinda aka samu shine wanda Marubuci Ibrahim Yaro Yahaya (Allah yajikansa da rahama) ya kawo a shafi na 74 na littafinsa mai suna 'Hausa A Rubuce..' inda yakecewa "Watakila za'ayi mamaki aji cewa a kasar Denmark ta turai aka fara samun an rubuta kalmomin hausa acikin rubutun boko tun a karni na goma shatakwas. Yadda abin yafaru shine a cikin shekarar 1772 sarkin Denmark ya tura wakilansa izuwa Arabiya don gudanar da bincike na kimiyya. Acikin wakilan harda wani mai suna B.G Neibuhr, wanda shine kadai ya tsira kuma har ya dawo gida kasarsa. To a wannan shekarar sai wani balaraben Tunis yaje Denmark ziyara, sunan sa Abdurrahman, a tare dashi akwai wani bawansa Bahaushe. Sai sarkin Denmark yasa aka kira Niebuhr domin ya zama tafinta tsakanin sa da balaraben nan kasancewar shi Niebuhr ya koyi larabci a tafiyar da yayi izuwa Arabia. To a wannan gamin ne har abota ta-kullu tsakanin Niebuhr da Abdurrahman, har kuma Niebuhr yayi sha'awar koyon Barbarci da Hausa daga wannan Bawa. Anan ya dukufa yana koyo, ana fada masa kalmomi yana rubutawa.
Ga wasu kalmomi da aka samu Niebuhr ya rubuta a hausar boko kamar yadda yaji daga bakin wannan bawa bahaushe.
Dudsji. Dutse
Ghaui. Gari
Dsjenari. Zinari
Ghurasa. Gurasa
Crua. Ruwa
Sirki. Sarki
Schensali. Shaidani
Berni. Birni
Baya da wannan kuma, sai rubuce-rubucen da J.F Schon yayi da hausa a wuraren 1856 lokacin daya roki Dr. Barth ya bashi aron Yaransa Dorugu da Abega don su taimaka masa wajen yin rubututtukan hausa.
A wancan lokacin ne Dorugu ya rinka faɗar labarun hausa, shikuma yana rubutawa, har aka samu cewa J. F Schon din ya rubuta litttattafai misalin Magana Hausa, Letafin Musa na fari, Labari Nagari, Dictionary of the Hausa da sauransu.
Amma dai idan muka dawo maganar asalin soma rubuta hausa da boko irin wadda har yau muke amfani da ita, to zaifi kyau mu koma kan maganar mu ta sama cewa turawan mulkin mallaka ne suka assasa tare da tabbatar mana da ita.
Farfesa Mahdi Adamu ya tabbatar mana da hakan a shafi na 55 na littafinsa mai suna 'The Hausa factor In West African History'. Kuma ga kadan daga abinda yace :- Karatu da rubutu ta hanyar boko ya samu ga hausawa ne a farkon karni na 20. Saboda a shekarar 1900AD ne gwamnatin Ingila ta karɓe ragamar mulki daga hannun sarakunan hausawa, amma sai a 1903 sojojin Gwamna Lugga suka cinye Kano da Sakkwato a yaki, sanna suka buɗe makaranta ta farko a sokoto tare da malamai biyu watau Mr. Kurdan da mataimakinsa Malam Ibrahim, amma makarantar bata daɗe ba saboda iyaye sunki sanya 'ya'yansu don gudun kada acusa musu akidar kiristanci.
Tun kafin wannan ma, shi kanshi Lugga sai daya kalli Hausawa da yadda sukayi riko da addini tun a lokacin, sannan yayi amannar cewa bai yiwuwa ace za'a koyar dasu boko kamar yadda ake koyar dashi a kasarsu Ingila.
A wani kaulin kuma, cewa akayi tun sa'ar da Lugga yake yaki a kasar nan ya fara sanyawa ana rubuta hausa ta hanyar amfani da rubutun romawa (boko). Saboda kamar yadda muka faɗa tun a baya, Lugga ya fahimci tasiri da bunkasar yaren hausa a wannan yanki na arewa, amma kuma a wurinsa bai yiwuwa ya rubuta hausa da ajami kamar yadda ya samu hausawan lokacin sunayi. Dalilan yin hakan suna da yawa, daga ciki akwai fadin cewa idan za'a rubuta hausa da ajami, sai an koyi yare biyu maimakon ɗaya, watau sai an koyi hausa, sannan kuma an koyi larabci. Amma watakila babban dalilin yafi ga kiyayyar su ga larabawa ko kuma ace kiyayyarsu ga musulunci (kamar yadda babban dalilin kin jinin boko daga hausawa shine kiyayyarsu da kiristanci). Wannan abune da ba sai an ɓoye ba. Lugga ya faɗa cewa baya ganin rashin sanya musulmai a sojinsa a matsayin siyasa, amma a zahiri siyasar ne. Tunda dai kusan ɗaukacin Sojojin nasa ba musulmai bane, mutane ne gwarawa da sauran kabilu marasa addini wadanda suke adawa da musulunci, waɗanda kuma yawa-yawansu suna da matsala daa musulmai tun a lokacin jihadi, don haka suna zucci-zuccin karya daulolin da musulmai suka kafa domin ɗaukar fansa.
A ɗaya ɓangaren kuma, akwai kwatankwacin wannan kiyayyar a zukatan hausawa, kuma tana daga manyan dalilan da yasa hausawa suka kyamaci ilimin boko. Shiyasa sai da aka sha-burtu aka soma sanya yara a makarantun zamani a wancan lokacin, koda yake har izuwa yanzu (kusan shekaru 114 kenan) wasu daga cikin mu hausawa na kallon ilimin boko a matsayin haramtaccen abu kuma gurɓatacce.
Ai a zahirin yakin da turawa sukayi a zamanin mulkin mallaka da 'yan kasa akayi, domin mafi yawan dakarunsu 'yan kasa ne bakaken fata, tunda turawa ba yawa garesu ba a rundunonin, hasali ma wannan yanki namu kamar makabarta ya zamewa turawa saboda yawaitar cututtuka dake musu lahani a yankin.
Shi kuwa rubutun Ajami, turawa da waɗanda ba musulmai ba sna ɗaukarsa a matsayin rubutu ne na Larabci kuma na musulunci, daman kuwa da tun da jimawa turawa da larabawa ba wata ɗasawa suke ta azo agani ba. Idan kuma ba haka ba, to zamu iya cewa baya daga cikin manufar turawa a zuwan su wannan yanki su inganta addinin Islama. Dalili kenan da ba zasu yadda suyi aiki da rubutun ajami ba ballantana har su inganta shi.
Don haka akace babbar sadarwar da sojojin Lugga sukafi fahimta daga gareshi shine rashin sonsa ga musulunci. A zahiri, ban jin an taɓa ruwaito wata kalma ta ɓatanci da Lugga yayiwa Islama, amma a baɗini, ayyukansa nason ganin bayan addinin ne, shiyasa kuma sojojin nasa sukafi kaunar kome za'a rubuta musu, a rubuta musu shi ɗin da yaren hausa, yaren da sukafi sha'awar yarawaa sama da nasu, amma kuma cikin haruffan sabuwar wayewa da kiristocin mulkin mallaka suka kawo, watau romanci.
Bayan anci kano da sokoto da yaki, sai Gwamna Lugga ya sa akayi masa hasashen ɗaliban dake makarantun allo a wannan yanki, inda kintace yanuna cewa akwai misalin makarantun Allo da ake karantar da Addinin musulunci cikin rubutun arabi da ajami misalin dubu 25, sannan ɗaliban dake cikin makarantun sun tasamma dubu 250. Wannan tasa Lugga fahimtar Cewa akwai aiki ja agabansa, amma dai ance da taimakonsa aka kafa makarantar mishan a Bidda a cikin shekara ta 1904, inda aka fara koyawa wasu mutane aciki harda tsirarun musulmai rubutun hausar boko, gami da harshen turanci. Ance ana koyar da daliban ne cikin harsunan mu na gida, watau hausa da nufanci. Gwamna Lugga ya sanar da Ingila yunkurin daya fara na juya rubutun ajami izuwa haruffan Rumawa (Boko) kamar yadda aka samu a kundin takardun dayasha turawa izuwa ingila (Annual Report, Northern Nigeria no. 476, 1903, 332-3)
Daga sanda aka fara samun gagarumar Nasara a fannin boko a kasar hausa kuwa shine wajajen shekara ta 1908, sa'ar da Lugga ya tura Dr. Hans Vischer wanda akafi sani da 'ɗan Hausa' izuwa kasashen Sudan, Misira (Egypt) da Gwalkwas (Ghana) domin yin nazari akan yadda kasashen ke bayar da ilimi ga mutanensu waɗanda akasari musulmai ne, saboda kasancewar hausawa musulmai sunki tura 'ya'yansu a harkar boko. Bayan Dr. Vischer ya dawo gida ne akace ya bude makarantar elementary da ake kira Makarantar ɗan Hausa a Nassarawan jihar kano, wadda akace da dalibai 30 ta soma, sai a hankali daliban suka rinka yawaita. Amma dai daga wannan lokacin ne aka samu cewar an fara fassara littattafai na ilimi wadanda aka rubuta su a wasu yarukan duniya izuwa hausa, aka rubuta su kuma da boko, a sannan gwamnati ta mayar da gausa a arewa a matsayin yaren sadarwa, sannan kuma a hankali har hukumar Norla tazo wadda itama ta bada gagarumar gudunmuwa wajen fassara littattafan ilimi izuwa harshen hausa.
Daga littattafan farko da aka soma fassarawa izuwa harshen hausa da rubutun boko akwai misalin :- Koyon Lissafi, Dare Dubu da ɗaya, Tarihin Garuruwan Borno, da wasu littattafan da dama.

ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA (kashi na ɗaya) DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO




ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(kashi na ɗaya)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Kafin karni na sha tara, kuma kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka kasar hausa, ɗaukacin masana sun haɗu akan cewa babu rubutun AaBaCaDa a kasar hausa, rubutun hausa da larabci (Ajami) kaɗai aka sani.
Shi kansa rubutun na Ajami, dattijo Marigayi Alh Muhammad Koki ya faɗa mana cewa yaji kaka-da-kakanni cewa asalin hausa babu rubutu har sai lokacin da larabawa suka kawo musulunci. A lokacin ne aka rinka amfani da rubutun larabci wajen sadarwa a rubuce. Har ma yace a wancan zamanin, idan kanaso ka tura wani sako ga wani ɗan uwanka dake rayuwa acan nesa dakai, sai dai kaje ka samu malami daya kware a fannin larabci, ka faɗi masa sakon shikuma yana rubutawa da alkalami a takarda, sannan ka biya lada, kai kuma ka naɗe sakon ka turawa ɗanuwan naka ta hanyar fatake. Shima ɗan uwan idan ya samu sakon, haka zaije ga malami wanda ya iya karatun larabci ya karanta masa sakon gami da fassarawa.
Sai Alhaji Muhammad Koki yace:- sai a wajajen karni na sha shidda zuwa na sha bakwai wani Sarki a Zaria ya kirkiro da dabarar rubuta zantukan hausa da haruffan larabci domin saukakewa da kuma bunkasa harshen na hausa.
Watakila kafin wancan lokacin, malumman bogi sunyi sharafi masu fassara sako gwargwadon abinda suka ga mutum yanaso, ko kuma muce karancin fahimtar wasu kalmomi na larabci sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen dakile harkar sadarwa a kasar hausa, amma samar da ajami sai ya kawo sauyi a harkar.
John Edward Philips ya rubuta a littafin 'Hausa in the Twentieth century' cewa: Fara Rubuta ɗai-ɗaikun kalmomin hausa da haruffan larabci ya samo asali ne tun lokacin da aka fara rubuta littafi da larabci a yankin. Tund a cewar sa Littattafan da aka rubuta na kunshe da sunayen Hausawa kamar misalin Muhammad Rumfa, sarkin kano dayayi mulki a karni na goma sha biyar.
Amma dai, littafi mafi daɗewa da aka samu wanda aka rubuta da Ajami shine littafin 'Riwayar Annabi Musa' da akace wani bakano mai suna Abdullahi Suka ya rubuta tun a wajajen karni na goma sha bakwai.
Daga nan kuma sai wakokin da aka samu Malaman nan na katsina sun rubuta, watau Dan Marina da Dan Masani, waɗanda suma ake hasashen anyi rubutun a zamani ɗaya da wancan na Abdullahi Suka, ko kuma wasu shekaru kaɗan baya da nashi. Daga nan ne kuma littattafai suka rinka samuwa da hausar Ajami, ta inda ake kara bunkasa rubutut-tukan da abubuwan da abaya babu su tun usuli, tun daga karni na sha takwas har zuwa na ashirin.
Marubuci John Edward Philips yayi hasashen cewa hausar boko ta fara ne a lokacin da turawan mulkin mallaka suka iso kasar hausa. A cewar sa Sa'ar da Fredrick Lugard ya zama shugaban 'Royal Niger Company' a ranar ɗaya ga watan janairun 1900, kaɗan daga sojojinsa ke jin yaren Ingilishi, tunda an samu cewa ana fassarawa sojojin Jawabin da Sarauniyar Ingila Victoria ta aiko a karanta musu da yaren Hausa dana Nupe ne.
Tun alokacin, ance Lugard ya fahimci nisan da yaren hausa yayi a zukatan kabilu dake zaune a arewacin Nigeria. Tunda an samu cewa zaka riski mutum yana magana da harshen kabilar sa, yana kuma magana da harshen hausa. Har ma takai jallin da idan hurɗa ta haɗa wasu mutane masu mabam-bantan kabila da harshe, sai kaga sun ajiye harshen su sunyi amfani da hausa wajen sadarwa.
Ga abinda aka taba jiyo Lugard yana cewa dangane da wannan batu:-
Na gamsu matuka wajen samar da daidaito a ɗibar sojoji ba kawai tsakanin kabilu ba, sai dai tsakanin mabiya addinin (Annabi) Muhammad da kuma sauran mutane marasa addini. Ina matukar girmama addinin (Annabi) Muhammadu, don haka bana ɗaukar rashin sanya mabiya addinin na (Annabi) Muhammadu a harkar soji a matsayin siyasa.. A yanzu mun fahimci cewar Kabilu marasa addini irinsu Gwari, Kedar da sauransu duk suna iya magana da harshen hausa, don haka zanfi so nasanyasu a aikin da zarar babban wurin atisayen mu ya Kammala..
Amma dai, duk da kasancewar Lugard yafi son ɗaukar sojoji daga kabilun da bana Hausa ba, ko kuma ace yafi son ɗaukar mutane marasa addini sama da mabiya Addinin musulunci, amma sam-sam baya koyar da sojin sa harshen su na Ingilishi.
Wannan kuma wani wayo ne da masu dabarar yaki suka nakalta. Domin shi yare ai kamar sirri ne, idan har baka jin yaren da ake yarawa, ba zaka iya fahimtar sirrin da ake tattaunawa ba. Wayon anan kuwa shine, su turawa da sojojin su suna jin harshen hausa, harshen da mafi yawan waɗanda suke yak'a ke fuskanta, amma kuma sunki bada wata kafa dasu waɗanda ake yaka zasu koyi turanci balle har su san wani abu daga sirrikan da turawa ke yaɗawa a tsakanin su.
Da wannan Lugard ya nunawa 'yan uwansa turawa muhimmancin kowannensu yakoyi harshen hausa. Ance ma shine asalin wanda ya kirkiro da jarabawar auna fahimtar hausa ga ma'aikatansa turawa kwatankwacin wadda akace Marigayi Sardaunan Sokoto Ahmadu Bello ya kirkiro ga ma'aikatan gwamnati a zamaninsa. Sai dai turawa da yawa sunga baiken Lugard, sai sukayi turjiya kuma akan wannan bukata.
Daga cikin futattun su akwai Kyaftin C. W Moloney, wanda akace ya nuna kyamar sa a fili ga yaren hausa tunda acewar sa Larabawa masu yaɗa addinin Islama ne suka kafa shi, ai kuwa shine wanda akace ya haɗu da hatsarin rashin koyon hausa a Fadar sarkin zariya.
Yadda abin ya auku shine, ance Kyaftin Moloney na gabatar da Jawabi ga jama'ar Zazzau ne a fadar sarkin Zariya a ranar uku ga watan oktoba na shekarar 1902 (tun kafin turawa su gangaro Kano da yaki) shikuma mai tafinta yana fassarawa ga jama'a. Sai rashin fahimta ta dabaibaye tafinta, inda ya rinka sauya zantukan da Kyaftin Moloney ke karantawa da wasu zantukan na daban gwargwadon fahimtarsa. ( Watakila saboda tsauraran kalmomin dake cikin jawabin ko kuma saboda karancin ilimin fassara ga tafintan) A ciki ne yake nunawa jama'ar zazzau cewa Matayensu mallakin turawa ne, kuma turawa na matukar bukatar su, duk wanda yaki amincewa da hakan kuwa zai haɗu da fushin turawa.. Haba, kafin a ankara sai ganin kan Kyaftin Moloney akayi yana mirgin-mirgin a kasa, wani zakakuri ya sare shi saboda bacin ran abinda yaji... Nan take kuwa sai faɗa ya kaure...

Monday, 19 November 2018

TARIHIN TSOFFIN BIRANEN HAUSA: BAƊARI DA GOƊIYA


Tarihin Tsoffin Biranen Hausa: Baɗari da Goɗiya.

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwazo
08060869978

A mafi ingancin zance, maguzawa ne suka fara kafa garuruwa a kasar hausa. Muna iya cewa ma sune asalin hausawa. Amma dai, bari kuji abinda muka samu daga tarihin waɗannan tsoffin garuruwa guda biyu.
Garin Baɗari.
Wannan gari yana da tsohon tarihi. Ya kamata kuma a sanyashi a sahun tsoffin biranen hausawa.
Tarihi ya nuna cewa, wani bamaguje mai suna Bugau shine wanda ya kafa wannan tsohon gari shekaru da dama da suka gabata. Ance garin ya riganyi Garuruwan Goɗiya dana Kano da kafuwa. Tsiransu da kano shekaru takwas ne, domin kuwa shi Bagauda daya kafa kano ance ai kanine ga Bugau.
Zuwa yanzu dai babu takamaimen tarihin daga inda Bugau da kaninsa Bagauda suka taho, babu labarin kabilar su kuma ko na iyayensu, amma dai labari ya nuna cewa su biyun duk 'yanuwan juna ne, kuma da hausa suke magana, tana iya yiwuwa ma Bagauda ya zauna a Baɗari kafin daga bisani ya tashi ya riski kano kuma har ya sareta ta zama gari.
Garin Baɗari daɗaɗɗe ne wanda za'a iya cewa ya kai kimanin shekaru dubu ɗaya da hamsin da kafuwa. Garin ya shahara a zamanin-da wajen sana'ar rini da bugu ta yadda har yanzu shashin shahararriyar karofin garin yananan. Sannan kuma alkarya ce a baya inda baki ke zuwa daga sassa mabanbanta.
Kasancewar mutanen garin sun bar tsohon garin izuwa sabo shekaru kimanin sittin da ɗaya da suka gabata, amma har zuwa yau akwai shacin ganuwa bai dusashe ba wanda ke nuna cewar garin yasha gwagwarmayar yaki acan baya. Sannan akwai shashin babbar fadar masarautar wadda akayi da ginin marmara, sai kuma shacin wata tsohuwar rijiya mai suna Fafagu shima yana nan har yau bai dusashe ba.
Bama iya nan ba, har yanzu ana iya shaida kushewar wani Mutum mai suna Garega a tsohon garin. Shidai Garega ance Bamaguje ne, daga kano yayi laifi aka koro shi. Dan haka dayayi yamma da kano da tafiya mai nisa sai ya riski Baɗari, sai kuwa ya zauna a garin har ajali ya sameshi. Bayan an binneshi a kushewa ne sai bishiyar Lalle tafito a saman kabarin nasa, wannan yasa wajen ya zama abin nuni gakowa. Kuma Koda yake zuwa yanzu an sare wancan lalle, amman dai an samu cewa kafin a sare shi idan mata sunyi kunshi da lallen baya kamawa.
Ance Fulani sunzo garin ne lokacin Jihadin Shehu Usmanu ɗan Fodio. Ga kuma yadda abin ya faru kamar yadda muka ji.
Akace akwai wani fulanin mutum Basulluɓe dake zaune a Adamawa mai suna Muhammadu Kigudu (ana kiransa Kigu) da sukayi rigimar sarauta a garinsu, sai bai samu wannan sarautar ba. Wannan tasa yayi fushi tare da tasowa dashi da wansa mai suna Gabbu, da dabbobinsu da kuma bayinsu izuwa sokoto wajen shehu Usmanu. Sun zauna da shehu babu jimawa sai aka basu shugabanci, inda shi Muhammadu Kigudu yazo ya zauna a garin Guɗe a matsayin shugaba, shikuma Gabbu ya zauna a garin Gwarzo a matsayin shugaba.
Daga bisani sai Kigudu ya dawo Baɗari da mulki. Ana kiran sarautar 'ɗan Badari'.
Bayan rasuwar sa kuma sai ɗansa Yusuf yayi sarauta. Shima bayan yarasu sai kuma aka danka sarauta a hannun wani mutum bafulatani jinsin Ruma dake kasar Katsina. Jikan wannan mutumi mai suna Abdullahi shine wanda ya ɗauke tsohon garin izuwa inda yake har zuwa yanzu, sai daga baya ne aka samu an maidowa da jinin Muhammadu Kigudu mulkin garin.
Abu ɗaya da zamu iya cewa yayi saura wanda kuma za'a iya tunawa dashi a tsohon garin Badari shine Tambari. Wanda akace yanzu haka yana masarautar getso sanadiyyar 'yar sarkin Baɗari da wani sarkin Getso ya taɓa aura, sai kuwaƴ ta tafi dashi izuwa can don a rinka kaɗa mata shi...

Saturday, 17 November 2018

KOKAWA: TARIHI DA TASIRI


KOKAWA: TARIHI DA TASIRI
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Kokawa ba kurum wasa bane, al'ada ce da mutum yayo gado shekara da shekaru.
Wani masani Kendall Blanchard ya kalli kokawa a matsayin daɗaɗɗen wasa acikin abinda ya rubuta a littafinsa mai suna 'The Anthropology of sports: An Introduction' saboda duba da yadda yace mutanen farko sun rinka zana hotunan masu kokawa a jikin kogunan duwatsu da kuma tarin mutane suna kewaye dasu suna kallo.
Amma dai mafi yawan masana kimiyyar salsalar ɗan adam suna kallon kokawa a matsayin daɗaɗɗen abu wadda ake amfani da ita wajen gane jarumi a tsakanin mazaje ba kurum a matsayin wasa ba.
Zuwa yanzu, yana da wuya a iya faɗar inda aka soma kokawa, ko kuma waɗanda suka soma yinta. Amma dai, idan muka kalli abin ta fuskar addinai, muna iya hasashen cewa 'ya'yayen Annabi Adamu watau Habila da Kabila ne suka soma karawa a junansu bisa saɓanin fahimta daya shiga tsakaninsu. Har daga bisani ɗaya ya kashe ɗaya.
Yazo a rubututtukan masana kimiyyar salsalar ɗan adam cewa jinsin maza sunfi rashin-ji da rashin son zaman lafiya sama da jinsin mata, don haka a kusan kafatanin tarihi sune sukafi kara kokawa a tsakaninsu ba mata ba.
Wasu masanan kimiyya mata da miji masu suna Martin Daly da Margo Wilson ne suka samar da sunan 'Young Male Syndrome' domin nuna yadda matasa mazaje ke jin karfi a jikkunan su gami da saurin aukawa cikin yanayin gogayya ko karawa a tsakaninsu, ta yadda abubuwa irinsu kokawa kan shigo ciki domin kece raini.
Ma'ana, da akai alamun cewa tun asali, mutum ya soma kokawa ne ba domin wasa ba, sai dai bisa dalilai guda biyu:-
Na ɗaya shine Kece raini.
Na biyu kuwa shine samun daraja ko ganima.
Masanin halayyar ɗan adam Aaron Lukaszewski, yayi wani bincike game da dalilan dake sa mutane ke yawan faɗa a Junansu, inda a karshe ya karkare da cewa mafi yawan karfafan mazaje sukanso kece raini a tsakaninsu, don haka akwai yiwuwar kartai biyu majiya karfi su kaure da kokawa bisa karamin dalili a zahiri, amma a baɗini suna yin kokawar ne domin kece raini. Saɓanin jinsin mata daya lura da cewa karfafan cikinsu sunfi kawaici da hakuri, yayin da raunanan mata keda yawan son tsokana da tada fitina gami da amfani da hakora don tserar da kansu idan aka samu ɓacin rana.
Dangane da yin kokawa bisa rajin samun tagomashi kuwa, akwai kyakkyawan hasashen cewa mutanen da suka gabace mu sun sanya kokawa ne a matsayin hanyar gane wanda yafi wani jarumta, ta yadda duk wanda ya samu galaba kuma shine zai iya samun babbar tagomashi akan ɗanuwansa.
Yazo a tarihi yadda dakarun tsohuwar daular Girka data Misra ke shiga kokawa don auna kakkarfa da jurau a tsakaninsu. Haka kuma a daular katsina ta kasar Hausa, an samu cewar a wani lokaci ana iya zamowa sarkin wannan daula ne kaɗai ta hanyar kokawa.
Wani masanin kimiyyar tarihin ɗan adam mai suna Napoleon Chagnon yayi bincike kan wata kabilar daji da aka samo mai suna 'Yanomamo' wadda ke zaune a kasar Venezuela.
Suffofin waɗannan mutane da ayyukansu kusan irin na mutanen farko ne waɗanda akace sun fara rayuwa ne a afirka kimanin shekaru sama da dubu hamsin baya. Don haka ana iya cewa har zuwa yau kabilar Yanomamo na rike da al'adu ne kwatankwacin irin na mutanen farko da suke rufe tsiraicinsu da ganyaye.
A binciken na Napoleon, ya lura da cewa kabilar suna kiran jarumin cikinsu da suna 'Unokai', sunan dake cike da girmamawa ga mutumin da yake da karfin kare kabilarsa daga makiya.
Unokai yana zamowa mai yawan mataye, da yawan 'ya'yaye. Don haka burin kowanne namiji dake wannan kabilar shine ya zama kamarsa.
Wannan ke zama silar da yara tun suna kanana suke koyan kokawa, domin na farko su kece raini ga sa'anninsu, sannan na biyu idan girma yazo musu su samu lakabin Unokai tayadda zasu samu tarin girma acikin jama'arsu gami da mataye da 'ya'yaye.
Wannan shine babban tarihin da zamu rinka tunawa a koda yausjlhe idan muka kalli kokawa.
Na farko dai mu gane cewar asalinta an sanyatane domin auna wanda yafi wani jarumta a tsakanin mazaje.
Daga baya kuma sai aka rinka sanya darajoji akanta gami da mayar da ita gasa tayadda duk masu son mallakar girma, sarauta, mataye da 'ya'yaye da sauran abubuwan duniya masu daraja sai ace su shiga kokawa domin nema, wanda yayi rinjaye shine da nasara.
Sabo haka kokawa tsohuwar al'ada ce wadda mutum yayo gadonta shekaru da yawa da suka gabata. Shiyasa ake samunta cikin kusan kowacce kabila.
Abu na karshe shine, tsarin kokawa yana nan bai sauya ba. Domin har zuwa yau anfi yin kokawa ne a tsakanin mutane biyu domin samun wani abu mai amfani, kuma a tsakiyar tulin mutane masu shaidarwa.
Sai dai kurum akwai wayewa da tayi tasiri acikinta tayadda ake sanya alkali mai lura da lokaci gami da yanke hukunci, da sanya yashi ko kasa ta musamman a wurin yin kokawa, sai kuma samar da abin kiɗa domin karfafa guiwa gami annushuwa tsakanin masu kokawa da masu kallonsu.

Sunday, 26 August 2018

FOR THE SALT

For the Salt

From the beautiful Tunisian tradition in honoring women and recognizing them on the morning of Eid al-Fitr. Tunisian husbands have this habit which they call "For the Salt."
The wife receives her husband when he returns from the Eid prayer.
She would be on her best look, after she has cleaned the house, and arranged it, and put a pleasant smell.

She will be holding on her hands a plate of sweets and a cup of coffee.
The husband drinks his coffee, but does not return the cup empty, he returns it with a piece of gold or silver, according to how much he can afford.

This gift is called "For the Salt."
It means honoring the lady of the house and recognising her beauty, patience and tiredness during the month of Ramadan.
As for us here, we are not seeing "For the Salt" nor "For the Sugar", not even for the heat we get from the oven.
Spread this awareness.

Tuesday, 21 August 2018

CIYAYYA

CIYAYYA
Assalamu Alaikum Warahmatullah
Wabarakatuhu.
Masu iya magana dai na cewa :
‘Kowa Ya Tuna bara bai ji dadin bana
ba’, wannan magana haka take,
domin kuwa halin da mutane suke
ciki a wannan lokacin sai dai muce
Alhamulillah. Sai dai, ina da wata
Shawari da nake fatar ta zama sauki
ga ‘Yan Uwa na Musulmi da Hausawa
baki daya.
A Zamanin da, Iyaye da Kakannin mu
suna da wata Al’ada da ake kira da
“CIYAYYA”. Ita dai wannan Al’ada,
ana Yinta ne kusan kullum kamar
haka : Abokai ne guda biyu ko kuma
sama da haka (masu aure ko Samari)
zasu dinga taruwa a kofar gidan su
daya daga cikin su ko kuma a wani
wuri na Musamman bayan Sallar
Magariba ko Isha’i, kowa in zai zo,
zai zo ne da Kwanon abincin daren
sa na wannan ranar,wasu kuma yara
ma ake turawa sukai abincin har
Wajen zaman iyayen nasu. Yayinda
wadannan abokai suka taru, sukan
Gaggaisa da juna sannan a danyi
Barkwanci a Tsakanin Juna, daga
baya kuma sai kowa ya wanke hannu
a fara cin abinci, in an gama cin na
wannan sai a ci na wancan har a
gama, a wasu Lokutan ma basa iya
Cinye Abincin sai dai su baiwa
Almajirai, in kuma wani yazo wucewa
to Sai ya tsaya ya ci rabon sa.
Wannan Al’ada tana da Sunaye iri iri
da ake kiran ta da shi, kamar yadda
naji wasu suna kiran ta da ‘CI MU CI’,
to amma ni dai na fi sanin ta da
Ciyayya.
Wannan shi ne iya abinda zan iya
Tunawa dangane da wannan Al’ada,
Kasancewar na zo duniya a dai dai
lokacin da wannan Al’ada ta fara
rauni sosai, Musamman a tsakanin
mutanen Birni.
To shi ne nake tunani, me zai hana
mu dawo da wannan Al’ada ta Iyaye
da Kakannin mu? Me zai hana mu
Dabbaka ta kuma mu Karfafi
Al’ummar mu da yin ta? A tunani na,
idan har muka dawo da wannan
Al’adar, Abubuwan da zamu Amfana
da su suna da Yawa. Ga kadan daga
cikin su ;
* Mutane zasu samu damar koshi
Yadda Ya kamata.
* Za’a Samu Soyayya da Shakuwa
sosai a Tsakanin Al’umma.
* Fahimta zata dinga shiga tsakanin
mutane a Maimakon rashin Fahimta.
* Zumunci zai Gyaru.
Ina Fatar Allah Ya Tserar da mu daga
Wahalhalun Rayuwa ameen.
Ya Allah Ka Azurta mu da Kyakkyawar
Fahimta ameen.
©Haiman Khan Raees
@haimanraees
08185819176
Haimanraees@gmail.com
January 2017