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Showing posts with label Darussan Hausa (Hausa Lessons). Show all posts
Showing posts with label Darussan Hausa (Hausa Lessons). Show all posts

BINCIKEN TARIHIN HAUSA 02


BINCIKEN TARIHIN HAUSA: LABARUN DA BISHIYOYIN KUKA KE SANAR MANA.
SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Kashi na biyu.
3. Kuka abinci da/ko Magani
Ba a iya kasar hausa ba, akwai kabilun duniya mabanbanta da suke mu'amala da bishiyar kuka. Don haka sanin alakar dake tsakanin wasu kabilun da bishiyar kuka zai amfane mu wajen sanin alakar kakannin hausawa da kukoki.
Misali, a kabilar Nkwici ta Kasar Malawi, ana kiran bishiyar Kuka da suna 'Bishiyar Rayuwa'. Saboda a cewar su, bishiyar na baiwa mazauna kauyuka mafaka a zamanin yaki yayin da mahara suka nufosu.
Sannan ana amfani da ganyenta da kuma 'ya'yanta don yin abinci gami da magani. Har ila yau, akwai canfe-canfe da dama a tattare da ita.
A kasar Madagaskar kuwa, an samu wata gagarumar Bishiyar kuka mai kimanin shekaru dubu uku, tsayinta zai tasamma kafa ɗari, faɗin ta kuwa an kiyasta sai mutane akalla goma sun kama hannuwan juna zasu iya rutsata. Mutanen yankin suna matukar girmama wannan kukar, har suna kiranta da 'Bishiyar Mutuwa', domin anasu fahimtar, duk wanda ya mutu a yankin, nan ruhinsa ke zuwa ya zauna.
A gundumar Linpopo dake South Africa, an samu wata gagarumar Bishiyar kuka. Tsayinta da faɗinta duk sun haura kafa talatin da biyar kowanne. Tana da kogo, wanda aka ayyana cewar mutane acan baya sun maida kogon wajen fira ko wajen fakewa, domin an samu wasu abubuwa irin na sojin-da da kuma abubuwan mu'amala duk aciki. Binciken 'carbon dating' na masana kimiyyar zamani ya kiyasta cewar bishiyar takai kusan kimanin shekaru dubu shida a raye.
Akwai kuma wani abu game da kuka da Marubuci ɗan kasar faransa Richard Mabey ya ruwaito a littafinsa mai suna 'The Caberat of Plant' cewar Giwaye da manyan namun daji suna zuwa jikin kuka susha ruwa tun acan baya. Wai da zarar sun hangota alhali suna cikin ɗimuwar kishi, sai aga sun nufeta da gaggawa, sannan su yage bayanta su soma lasa. ƊDaga bisani bincike ya nuna cewa bishiyar na iya tanajin ruwa sama da lita dubu ɗari gwargwadon girmanta da adadin shekarunta.
Don haka anan kasar hausa, tun da jimawa hausawa ke amfani da ganyenta wajen yin miyar abinci, 'ya'yanta kuma wajen sha, sannan sassakenta wajen yin magani. Watakila kuma shiyasa ba'a taɓa raba tsoffin garin hausawa da kukoki ba, misalin 'Yandoto, Maladawa, Durɓi, Goɗiya, Gaya, Rano, Baɗari da wasunsu.
4. Ana Sanin Matattarar Hausawa a babban gari daga kukoki.
A dukkan wani gari, akan samu wurin da Jamaa ke taruwa bisa aiwatar da wasu lamurori nasu na al'ada, cinikayayya ko wani abu makamancin haka, don haka a kasar hausa mafi akasari, gindin babbar kuka akan mayar izuwa cibiyar haɗuwa.
Akwai a garin Dugabau wata tsohuwar Kuka mai suna Jarmai (yanzu ta faɗi) wadda akace shekaru da jimawa a gindinta sadaukai masu tafiya yaki ko fatake masu kasuwanci ke sauka akan hanyarsu ta zuwa birnin kano.
Don haka kukar babba ce wadda tafi sauran kukoki tsayi da haɓaka, gamiɓda inuwa wadatacciya.
Akwai wata tsohuwar kuka kuma a tsakiyar garin Tsaure wadda take matattarar jama'ar garin domin tattauna mas'alolin da suka taso musu kamar yadda Mallam Nura Tsaure ya bamu labari. Irin waɗannan kukoki tsofgi ne, tayadda babu wanda zai iya cewa yasan lokacin da aka shukasu, sai dai a kamanta cewar sheksrunsu yakai arbaminya.
Watakila kuma bukatar inuwa ke sanya hausawa ɓigewa da zama a karkashin bishiyoyin kukoki, amma tana iya yiwuwa akwai wani canfi mai girma a game da haka.
5. Tsohuwar Alakar Hausawa da Iskokai.
Kasancewar bishiyar kuka na ɗaya daga cikin bishiyoyin da iskokai ke zama a samansu harma akance sarakunan aljannu da yawa sunfi yin fadojinsu akan bishiyar kuka, don haka akwai alamun jimawar alaka tsakanin hausawa da waɗancan iskokai.
Mun sani sarai kafin zuwan musulunci kasar hausa cewa ana rayuwa ne acikin irin yanayin mai karfi shine da iko, don haka kusan kowanne mutum na zamanin yana kokarin rikar wani abu na canfi mai jiɓi da iskokai wanda zai rinka bashi kariya aduk sanda ya bukata, tare da bashi biyan bukatarsa.
Don haka, tana iya yiwuwa wannan canfin ne silar da kusan ɗaukacin hausawan dauri suke shuka bishiyar kuka a muhallinsu domin samun watakariya daga makarai.
Zuwa yamzu dai, akwai bishiyoyin kukoki birjik a ɗaukacin tsoffin biranen hausa, kuma akwai labaru da yawa daga yawa-yawan manyan kukokin cikinsu, tayadda wasu ma zakaji har sunaye aka basu. Ga kaɗan daga sunayen bishiyoyin kukoki masu ɗaƴke da wani labsri anan kasar hausa:- Kukar Boka, Kukar Gajere, kukar mai Rabo, kukar Allah ya isa, Kukar kwanɗi, kukar karaya, kukar bulokiya, kukar jarmai, kukar makuwa, da sauransu.
Karshen wannan rubutu kenan
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BINCIKEN TARIHIN HAUSA 01


BINCIKEN TARIHIN HAUSA: LABARUN DA BISHIYOYIN KUKA KE SANAR MANA.
SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978

Kashi na ɗaya.

Kasancewar akwai ilimi acikin kowanne abu, ya kamaci muyi duba ga bishiyoyin kuka don fahimtar iliman da suke sanar mana anan kasar Hausa.
Domin kuwa kamar yadda masana kimiyyar duwatsu ke cewa akwai tarihi a kowanne dutse, haka ma akwai labari ga mafi yawan rukunonin bishiyoyin kuka anan kasar hausa.
To amma, wanne labari bishiyoyin suke sanar mana?
1. Ana Gane wanzuwar birnin Hausawa daga kukoki.
Hakika, kasancewar tun da jimawa, babu shahararrun gine-gine masu kafuwa cikin kasa a kasar hausa, muna iya cewa babu wani ma'auni dake tabbatar mana da wanzuwar tsohuwar rayuwa a kasar hausa sama da rukunin kukoki.
Ko tantama babu, duk inda aka samu kukoki sun jeru reras, ko sunyi da ira, ko wani abu mai kama da haka, to akwai labarin cewa gari ya taɓa wanzuwa a wannan wuri.
2. Ana sanin Tsufan gari gami da tumbatsar sa daga kukoki.
Akan haka, munyi duba ga tarihin wasu tsoffin garuruwa anan kasar hausa masu cike da bishiyoyin kukoki, kuma ga ɗan abinda muka samo:-
I. Sabon Birni
Daga tsoffin biranen dake kasar hausa, akwai wani Sabon Birni a kasar Getso mai cike da kukoki.
Masana tarihin garin, sun bayyana cewar wasu fulani ne suka kafa shi, waɗanda suka taso daga arewa sama da shekaru ɗari biyar da suka gabata.
Kasancewar garin fulani irin wannan mai cike da kukoki, yasa akwai zakuwar sanin dalilan fitowar waɗannan kukoki a wannan gari.
Ada, hasashen mu yafi tafiya akan cewar mu'amala da iskokai ke tilastawa hausawan dauri rayuwa da kukoki a muhallansu, amma samunsu a mtsugunin da tun asali fulani suka kafa, sai yazo da wani sabon abu.
A bisa jin dalilin fitowar kukokin, Mazauna garin sunce acan baya babu kukoki a wannan wuri kafin ya zama gari, amma kasancewar fulanin da suka zauna a wurin suna amfani da kwalba wajen kaɗa nono ('ya'yan kuka), to idan an zubar dasu a wuri, sai kaga wata bishiyar ta sake tsirowa. Har ma sai da takai ga cewa a kowanne gida, akwai kuka acikinsa. Wani gidan ma har sama da ɗaya akan samu.
Wanzuwar tsoffin kukoki da kuma yawaitarsu a wannan tsohon gari ke nuna cewar ada-can baya, garin ya cika da gidajen mutane.
Sai dai, duk da cewar fulanin garin basu taɓa gina ganuwa ba kasancewar su matafiya ba mazauna ba, idan labarin yaki yazo sukan shige birnin getso ne wanda wani bamaguje mai suna Babbaka Toro ya kafa bisa neman mafaka.
Daga al'adun mutanen garin kuwa, sharo ne yafi shahara, wanda suka ce ada can a duk shekara mutane mata da maza daga garuruwa makwabta na taruwa a kofar gari, kusa da wasu duwatsu ayi kwana biyu ana sharo, ana kiɗan kotso da gangi harma da kiɗan Balaye wadda ake mata rawar juya-juya.
Daga wannan garin ne aka samu wani maharbi mai suna Ganjigo ya tashi har yaje ya gina garin walawa a kasar karaye, da kuma wani gari mai suna Kafin Allah Gaba a kasar zazzau.
Don haka, mazauna garin sun tafi akan cewar babban labarin da kukokin garin ke bayarwa shine jimawar al'umma a cikin sa, domin kuwa saida mutane suka soma zama sannan kukokin garin suka fito.
Har ma wani dattijo yace akwai wata kuka data fito a gidansu suna yara, sama da shekaru hamsin kenan bata girma ba har zuwa yau, don haka yace tabbas akwai shekaru ɗaruruwa ga waɗannan tsofaffin kukoki na garinsu.
II. Zangon Dan-Nafada
Shi kuma wannan gari, wani mai suna Madugu ne aka ce ya sare shi shekaru ɗaruruwa da suka shuɗe. Rukunin kukokin da suka zagaye garin kaɗai ya isa ya bada shaidar cewa hausawa sun jima suna rayuwa a wannan gari.
Akace Wai yayin da Madugu yazo wucewa, sai ya yada zango a wannan wuri, don haka sai ake cewa da wurin zangon madugu. Daga baya sunan garin ya koma Zangon ɗan Nafada.
A cewar wani mazaunin garin, Babbaka Toro daya sari garin getso, anan ya soma zama tare da Madugu da wasu jama'a kowanne cikin ɗan botonsa, daga bisani ya tashi yaje ya sari Getso.
Da yake shima wannan gari cike yake da kukoki, mazauna garin sun tabbatar da cewa sai da mutane suka soma zama sannan kukokin suka fito a dalilin zubar da kwallayensu da akeyi ko ina idan an shanye.
Don haka, tsufan garin na iya zamowa wasu shekaru sama da shekarun kukokin wannan gari kenan..
A bisa tsoffin hausawa da fulani da muka tambaya, kusan ɗaukacin su sun tafi akan cewa duk kukar daka gani ba'a san sanda aka shukata ba. Dukkan su sun gamsu cewar manyan kukoki masu alamar shekaru, tasowa sukayi suka gansu.
Haka nan, ana iya lura cewar a gonaki da dazuzzuka inda babu mutane dake rayuwa a wurin, ba kasafai bishiyar kuka ke fitowa ba. Amma kuma mafi yawan unguwannin hausa na tsofgin garuruwa na ɗauke da bishiyar kokoki. A wani sa'in ma, akan samu bishiyar kuka a kowanne gida, ko kuma a bayan gidan.
Watakila, hakan na nuna cewar sai da mutane suka fara zama a wannan wuri sannan kukokin suka fito. Idan kuwa hakan ta tabbata, to zamu iya sanin shekarun kukoki a kasar hausa ta hanyar binciken zamani, sannan da watakila zamu iya sanin jimawar lokacin da hausawa suka fara zama a wannan wuri, tayadda daga bisani zamu gane gari mafi tsufa a kasar hausa.
Idan kuma ta tabbata cewar yawan bishiyoyin kuka ke nuni da yawan mutanen da suka rayu a gari, da shima zai zamo mana ma'auni mafi sauki don gane tsoffin garuruwan da sukafi tumbatsa da mutane shekaru aru-aru da suka wuce..
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DIDDIGIN ISAR HAUSAWA GWANJA DA KURMI

Diddigin Isar Hausawa Gwanja da Kurmi

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
08060869978

Da Bukar Mada
08021218337

Cinikayyar Goro wata abar tunawa ce a tarihin k'asar Hausa. Domin kuwa abisa al'ada, kowacce al'umma tana ware wani abu muhimmi mai daraja domin yin musanyar cinikayya a matsayin Haja tun kafin a samar da kudade.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa ba'a bar kasar hausa a baya ba a wannan fage, domin kuwa al'ummatan zamanin daya gabace mu sun yi riko da Bayi, Gishiri, Wuri, Azurfa, Zinare da Goro duk a bisa irin wancan matsayi na musaya a fannin cinikayya da sigar mallakar abubuwa.

Watakila, wannan ne yasa hausawa na wancan lokacin suka bazama neman wadancan abubuwa masu daraja. Tarihi ya nuna an samu garuruwa da dama da suka kafu saboda zuwan mutane hak'ar zinare a yankunan, haka kuma labarin yadda hausawa ke tafiya fataucin bayi, gishiri duk sananne ne izuwa duk inda suka san zasu samu kayayyakin. A irin haka muke kyautata tsammanin bahaushe ya fara riskar yankunan da ake noman goro domin fataucinsa a nasa yankin.
Duk da kasancewar babu takaimaimen lokacin da bahaushe ya fara zuwa wancan wuri, ko kuma sunan bahaushen daya fara dillancin goro, amma dai sanannen abu ne cewa turbar kasuwanci ta kafu a wuraren k'arni na takwas tsakanin garin Gwanja inda ake noman goro izuwa hamshak'iyar masarautar Kanem dake Borno.

Marubucin littafin Kitab Al-buldan mai suna Al'yaqubi bayan yawace-yawacen sa dayayi a kusa da wannan yankin, ya ruwaito a shekarar 872-873 cewa "akwai wata masarauta awani wuri dake tsakanin masarautar kanem da tafkin kwara (dai-dai da ko kuma kusa da inda kano take a yanzu), mai suna 'HBSH'. Sunan mai mulkinta 'MRH' sunan birnin ta 'ThBYR'. zuwa yanzu, da yawan masana sunfi gaskata cewar hausawa Al-Yakubi yake nufi a matsayin mazauna yankin.
Shi kuwa Goro, cinsa akeyi.

 Kasancewar sa abu mai daraja na wancan lokacin, an jiyo canfe-canfe da dama akansa. Wasu ma na ganin cewar mahalicci ya zabe shi ne sama da sauran 'ya'yan itaciya, don haka... 

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BINCIKE A LUPUR

BINCIKE A LUPUR, TSOFFIN TSAUNIKAN DA MAGUZAWA SUKA TAƁA KAFA DAULA.
DAGA
SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Lupur, wani ɗan ƙauye ne dake daura da sabon garin Rano, koda yake ana iya cewa manyan tsaunikan nan masu tarihi ne suka raba ƙauyen da garin na Rano, watau duwatsun Ƙurƙubu, Ƙurgum, Damusu, da Mairamu.
Manyan ababen ƙayatarwa a ƙauyen sune duwatsun Jidal da kuma Tsiriri dake can ƙurya dashi, dukkaninsu kuwa suna da tsohon tarihi.
Don haka sai na yanke shawarar ziyartar gani da ido zuwa garin.
Kafin zuwana, na saurari labaru kala-kala game da waɗancan tsaunika. Daga ciki akwai masu cewa Fadar sarakunan farko na maguzawa na cikin tsaunikan Lupur ne, akwai koguna masu duhu da kuma ababen tsoratarwa aciki.
Ibrahim Haladu, shine matashin daya amince yayi mini rakiya zuwa cikin surƙuƙin waɗannan duwatsu. Haka kuma mahaifinsa Mallam Haladu tsoho ne, masanin tarihin wannan yanki, wanda har Maimartaba Sarkin Rano kan aiko mutane gareshi domin jin abinda ya sani game da tarihin tsohuwar Rano.
Bayan mun gusa nesa da gari, sai gamu daf da sashen ganuwa ginin dutse, wajen ya zama gomaki amma dai ana iya ganin ɓurɓushin duwatsu da akayi alamomi dasu tun abaya, muna tsallakata kuwa sai yace mini yanzu mun shigo asalin garin daya fara kafuwa kafin komawa Rano.
Wurin kewaye yake da manyan tsaunikan can dana faɗa a sama, watau Ƙurƙubu, Mairamu, Ƙurgum, Damusu, da wasunsu, amma Jidal da Tsiriri na can ciki.
A saman waɗannan duwatsun na hango birrai farare suna ta kaikawo, shigen jikinsu yaso yayi kama dana kyanwa. Ɗan rakiya ta yace mini sun fito shan ɗorawa ne, kuma sun saba ganinsu suna fitowa gungu-gungu. Wani sa'ilin ma har ƙasa suke saukowa takalar faɗa.
Ibrahim ya nuna mini gonakinsu a ƙasan waɗannan duwatsu, kuma ya sanar mini cewa birrai na zuwa suyi musu ɓarna lokaci zuwa lokaci.
Da muka yi gaba daga nan, akwai wani sashen gini da aka nuna mini na duwatsu. Wajen ance tsohuwar fada ce, mai ɗauke da zauruka da manyan ɗakuna, har ma da inda ake zama don yin fadanci.
Ban samu labarin sunayen sarakunan da sukayi mulki acikin wannan fada ba, amma dai ance mini wannan waje ya girmewa tsohon garin Rano dake can tsallaken duwatsun, inda shima ake iya ganin sashen gini na ƙasa da sarakunan zamanin suka rayu a ciki.
Sai dai kuma ana tsammanin sai da wayewa ta zowa waɗannan maguzawa sannan suka sauko daga kan tsaunika tare da soma yin bukkoki a dandamarin ƙasa. A zamanin ance Sarki kaɗai ake ginawa gida da duwatsu.
Babu kuma takamaimen bayani game da hanyar zaɓen shugaba a wancan tsohon zamani, amma dai kamar yadda aka sani, bata wuce gado ko kuma fin ƙarfi.
Daga can ƙurya kuma akwai sashen ƙofofin shiga gari masu suna ƙofar Ƙahu da Ƙofar Bezo, ance mutanen da suka zauna a wurin sun samar dasu ne domin sanya ƙarin tsaro kafin a riski inda suke.
Baya da nan kuma sai wani babban dandali, inda aka asanar mini cewa ainihin wajen matattara ce, kasancewar akwai mutane zazzaune a kusan kafatanin tsaunikan, don haka suna samun lokacin da suke haɗuwa don yin bautar gumakansu misalin gunki Darmo, har ma da yin wasanni.
Daga wasannanin da akace suna yi baya da kaɗe-kaɗe da raye raye irin na maguzanci, akwai wasan Ƙwado da ayanzu akafi sanin mata dashi. Don haka har yanzu ana iya ganin wani dutse da suka ƙwaƙule, suka yi masa ramuka kamar tandarun waina, wanda suke wasan ƙwado a kanshi.
Ance wani sarkin Rano ya taɓa zuwa ya umarci a haƙe shi a mayar dashi inda masarautarsa take, amma duk tsawon haƙan da akayi sai dai aga dutsen na ƙara zurfi, daga ƙarshe sai aka haƙura ba tare da angano cibiyarsa ba.
A gefe ɗaya kuma akwai tsaunikan Tsiriri da Jidal waɗanda ana iya cewa sune sukayiwa wannan farfajiya ƙawanya.
Shi tsaunin Tsiriri anan ne kogo yake, watau inda Zamna Kogo ya samo asali, inda akace anan ainihin maguzawan suka rinƙa zama tare da iyalansu.
Na samu hawa saman tsaunin tare da shiga kogon, na ganshi da faɗi, da kuma duwatsun zama barbaje a ciki, harda wani faffaɗa da akace anan shugabansu yake. Sai kuma wasu lunguna da suke sadarwa izuwa gareshi..
Akwai kuma wata rijiya mai suna Kurfafiya a saman tsaunin wadda ruwa mai haske yake tsatsowa daga tsakankanin duwatsu, wadda kuma akace tarihi ya nuna cewar daga gareta mazauna duwatsun ke samun ruwansha, haka kuma bata taɓa ƙafewa ba.
Ance maguzawan da suka rayu a wajen basa sanya tufafi, sai dai su rufe tsiraicinsu da ganyaye.
Haka kuma farautar namun daji ce babbar sana'ar su, gasu karfafa, don haka suna yawan fita yaƙi ga maƙwabtan birane, suma kuma ana yawan kawo yaƙi izuwa garesu.
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TUNAWA DA YAƘIN SANTOLO

TUNAWA DA YAKIN SANTOLO
(YAKI DON TABBATAR DA MUSULUNCI A KASAR HAUSA)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Hakika, idan har Tarihin kasar hausa bazai cika ba sai an kalli tarihin kano, to haka ma tarihin kano da zuwan musulunci kano bazai taɓa kammaluwa ba har sai an sanya wani yanki na Santolo.
Santolo tsohuwar daular hausawa ce, tsohuwar masarauta ce wadda salsalar ta take tukewa da salsalar asalin hausawa.
A cikin zantuka masu yawa na maruwaitan tarihin kano, an gamsu cewar wani mai suna 'Dala' shine wanda ya soma zama akan dutsen da ayau ake kira dutsen Dala, a wajajen shekara ta 700 miladiyya, tun a wancan lokacin kuma wasu na ganin akwai mutane dake rayuwa a gefa da kuma kan wani dutse mai suna 'santolo', wanda kuma da alama, sunan ya samo asali ne daga mutumin daya soma rayuwa a saman dutsen.
Zuwa yanzu, babu takamaimen tarihin asalin kafuwar santolo, sannan kuma yana da wuya a iya lissafa tsawon zamanin da mutane suka soma rayuwa akan dutsen santolo, to amma tarihi ya auna cewar mazauna Santolo dana Dala dake kano suna da alaka kodai ta jinsi, ko ta addini ko kuma ta duka gaba ɗaya, tunda har ma an samu cewa acan baya alakar kasuwanci na shiga tsakanin mazauna waɗannan duwatsu biyu. Wasu kuma na ganin Santolo tayi shaharar da har daga Borno ake zuwa yin fatauci a koma, to amma daga baya sai Allah ya fifita Dala sama da ita Santolon.
Babban abin tunawa dangane da Santolo shine 'Yakin Santolo' wanda aka gwabza tsakanin Sarkin Kano Ali Yaji ɗan Tsamiya da kuma shugaban Santolo mai lak'abin 'Magajin Santolo' wanda ya karɓi bakuncin takwaransa 'magajin Dala' bayan sarki Ali ya karya tsumburbura dake saman dutsen dala ya kuma kori Magajin Dala da mutanensa.
Tarihi ya nuna cewa asalin garin Kano ya faro ne daga dutsen dala, inda ake bautar gunkin wata aljanna mai suna 'tsumburbura' dake saman dutsen, amma daga baya maɗatai ta kafu, har Bagauda yazo ya soma sarautar ɗaukacin yankunan maɗatai dana yankin dala, waɗanda suka haɗe da sunan kano.
Haka kuma, tsawon zamani a kano babu addinin musulunci, daga masu bautar tsunburbura karkashin ikon magajin dala (wanda yayi gadon Barbushe) sai kuma maguzawa waɗanda basa bautar komai irinsu Bagauda da salsalarsa dake sarautar kano.
A haka kano ta taho har akazo kan mulkin Sarki Ali yaji ɗan Tsamiya a wuraren shekara ta 1300-1380 miladiyya, wanda ya karɓi bakuncin kabilar fulani Wangarawa daga Kasar Mali, waɗanda suka kawo musulunci garin kamar yadda Marigayi Maje Ahmad Gwangwazo ya faɗa a littafinsa na tarihin kano da tarihin zuwan wangarawa birnin.
To, bayan sarki Ali Yaji ya karɓi addinin musulunci, sai kuma ya jagoranci karya gunkin tsunburbura tare da umartar masu bauta masa su dawo musulunci, amma sai sukace sam-sam ba zasu bar addinin kaka-da-kakan-nin suba suyi addinin dungure, don haka sai suka gudu izuwa Santolo domin cigaba da bautar da suka saba.
Wannan ne yasa sarki Ali Yaji ya shirya dakaru kimanin dubu bisa dawakai, ɗauke da takubba da kuma garkuwa ta bakin karfe, tare da gudunmiwar wangarawa suma kimanin ɗari biyu, suka dirarwa Santolo da yaki.
Watakila, Sarki Ali ya shirya wannan yakin ne domin ya samu labarin cewa Magajin Dala da Mutanen santolo zasu zo su yakeshi, ko kuma tana iya yiwuwa yayi ne kurum da niyyar hana bautar gumaka tare da tabbatar da addinin musulunci a sassan kano.
Amma dai ance a lokacin, sai mutanen santolo suka ɗare bisa dutsen na Santolo, suka rinka sakarwa dakarun Sarki Ali Yaji kibbau, har takai sun hana su kusantar dutsen.
To amma daga bksani, Sarki Yaji da dajarunsa sun samu galabar hawa kan dutsen tare da karkashe dakarun Santolo, ciki kuwa harda shugabansu Magajin Santolo.
Babu takamaimen bayanin ko magajin dala ya mutu a yakin ko kuma guduwa yayi daga baya ya mutu, to amma dai an samu cewar tun daga lokacin ya zamo musulunci ya samu karɓuwa a yankin, kuma tun daga nan ba a k'ara samun wasu mutane da suka yi bautar wani abu ba Allah ba akan wannan dutsen.
Dutsen Santolo gagarumi ne, faffaɗa da doro, tsayinsa ya tafi kamar hawan bene daga baya, daga gabansa kuwa goshi yayi mai faɗi da santsi, tsakiyarsa nada faɗi harma akwai koguna da akace dabbonin daji misalin su kyarkeci, dila da macizai ke rayuwa.
Koda yake, bamuji sunan gunki da aljanar dake saman dutsen santolo ba, amma har yanzu mutanen dake zagaye da wurin sun kiyaye cewar kakanninsu sun basu labarin cewar a zamanin da, ana taruwa ahau kan wannan dutse don neman wata biyan bukata.
Sannan kuma akwai wata rijiya zuzzurfa dake saman dutsen mai suna 'Rijiyar Giɗaɗo', wadda akan hana mutane zuwa kusa da ita saboda kuɓuta daga k'wank'waman dake wurin masu halaka mutane.
Zuwa yanzu garin santolo ya kasu biyu, akwai sabon garin santolo wanda kanawa (kabilar hausawa) ke ciki, sai kuma santolon fulani, amma dukkan su suna karkashin ikon dagaci mai suna Santolo Da'u.
Haka kuma dutsen yana nan a tskiyar kauyukan sabon garin santolo, santolon fulani, Madawa, Koɗe, kyarmawa, da Tsakuwa waɗanda dukkanin su suke cikin gundumar Dawakin Kudu ta Jihar Kano.
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MAFIYA ALKHAIRIN MUTANE

MAFIYA ALKHAIRIN MUTANE.


Annabi SAW yana bayyana mana siffofi da Wadansu Halaye na Mutanan da suke zababbu awajan Allah.

Ga kadan daga cikinsu:

*1-Wanda yafiku kyawawan Halaye*

Daga Ibn Abas R.A Manzon Allah SAWyana cewa:
*(Zababbunku sune wadanda suke da kyawawan Halaye.......)* @Albany Ya Ingantashi

*2-Wanda yafi kowa kyawun biyan bashi*

Daga. Abi Hurairata R.A :Annabi SAW yana cewa:
*(Zababbe acikin ku shine wanda yafi kyawun biyan bashi)*
@ASSaheeha

*3-Wanda yafi alkhairi awajan iyalinsa*

Annabi SAW yana cewa:
*(Zababbe acikinku shine wanda yake abin alfahari awajan iyalinsa)*
@Albany ya Ingantashi.

*4-Wanda ya iya karatun alqurani kuma yake koyar dashi*

Manzon Allah SAW
yana cewa:
*(Zababbunku shine wanda ya iya karatun alqur'ani kuma yake koyar dashi)*
@Albany ya Ingantashi

*5-Wanda Musulmai suka kubuta daga harshensa da hannunsa*

Annabi SAW Yana cewa:
*(Mafi alkhairin acikin musulmi shine wanda musulmi suka kubuta daga sharrin Harshensa da Hannayansa)*
@Saheehul Jami'i.

*6-Wadanda sukayi rayuwa tare da Manzon Allah SAW*

Manzon Allah SAW yana cewa:
*(Mafi alkhairin mutane sune Mutanan da sukayi zamani da Annabi SAW, sannan wadanda suka biyo bayansu,sannan wadanda suka biyo bayansu)*
@Albany ya Ingantashi.

*7-Wanda yafi amfanar da al'umma*

Annabi SAW yana cewa:
*(mafi alkhairin mutane shine wanda yafi amfanar mutane)*
@Albany ya ingantashi.

*8-Wanda zuciyarsa ta tabbata akan tsoron Allah*

Manzon Allah SAW yana ccewa:
*(Mafi mafi alkhairin mutane shine mai zuciyar datake jin tsoran Allah,da harshen da ya tabbata akan fadar gaskiya akowane lokaci.........)*
@Albany Ya ingantasa

*9-Macen da idan mijinta ya kalleta zata faranta masa rai*

Annnabi SAW. Yana. Fada:
*(Mafi alkhairi acikin Mata,itace Macen da idan ka kalleta zata faranta maka rai,idan kuma kayi mata Umarni zatayi maka Da'a, sannan bazata ci amarnarka ba. Idan bakanan)*
@Saheehul Jami'i.

*10-Wanda ake tsammanin alkhairinsa*

Manzon Allah SAW yana fada:
*(Mafi alkhairi acikinku shine:wanda ake tsammanin alkhairi. Daga wajansa,kuma aka aminta daga sharrinsa........)*
@Albany ya ingantashi.

*11-Mafi alkhairin Matan Duniya*

Annabi SAW yana cewa:
"Mafi alkhairin Matan duniya guda hudune:
¤Maryam Bint IIIMRANA
-¤Khadijatu Bint KKKKhuwaid
¤Fadhimatu Bint MMuhammad
¤Asiyatu Matar fir'auna
@Silsilatus Saheeha
Allah ya kara masu yarda.

    Allah ne mafi sani

Allah ka sanya mu cikin bayinka mafiya alkhairi acikin mutane.
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ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA 03

ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(KASHI NA UKU)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Bunkasar Harshen Hausa
Abisa fahimta irin tamu, yaren hausa gamayya ce ta haifar dashi. Littafin Babil mai tsarki ya faɗi cewar shekaru da dama da suka gabata (misalin shekaru dubu takwas da suka gabata), mutanen duniya da harshe ɗaya kurum suke amfani, sai daga baya yaruka suka rinka samuwa ta yadda zuwa yanzu akwai kimanin yaruka dubu bakwai a faɗin duniyar nan. Ina tsammanin Littafin Alqur'ani maigirma bai yi magana irin wannan ba, amma duk da haka maganar data fito daga Babil na iya tabbatuwa a kimiyance tunda dai munsan cewa Allah Ubangiji ne ya saukar da littattafan duka guda biyu.
Samuwar harshen hausa na iya zamowa daga haɗakar kalmomi na waɗansu yaruka mabanbanta. Ma'ana, tana iya kasancewa karo-karon kalmomi daga yaruka daban-daban ne ya haɗu ya samar da yaren hausa kachokan ɗinsa, hakan kuwa na iya faruwa ne idan muka kalli hausawan su kansu zamuga cewa kabilu ne da dama suka cakuɗu suka rikiɗe tare da zamowa hausawa lokaci mai tsawo daya shuɗe.
Misali, bari mu ɗauki manyan garuruwan hausa mu ɗanyi karamin nazari akansu:-
A tarihin kafuwar kano, ance wani mai suna Dala ne ya fara zama akan wani dutse wanda daga bisani aka sanya masa suna dala. A hasashe, hakan ta faru tun a wajajen karni na bakwai. Littafin tarihin kano da ake kira 'Kano Chronicle' (Tarih baladil Laziy Musamma Kano) ya ruwaito kwatankwacin haka, har kuma ya rubuta a shafin farko "La na'alamu k'abilatihi'. Ma'ana, bamu san kabilar shi wannan Dala ɗinba wanda hakan ke nuna cewar sam-sam Dala ba Bahaushe bane. Hakan kuma na nuna cewa asalin kalmar Dala itama ba hausa bace.
Daga lokacin Dala da lokacin rayuwar zuriyarsa, kalmomi mabanbanta sun shigo cikin harshen hausa. Kamar misalin Girgije (Sunan Kakan Barbushe, kalmar kuma da hausawa ke nufin Hadari), Magaji daga Magajin Dala, da makamantansu.
Daga bisani akace Bagauda yazo Maɗatai ta kano ya kama noma. A bisa mafi rinjayen magana, Bagauda Bamaguje ne. Shima watakila Sunan kabilar sa Maguzawa, ko kuma sunan kabilar tasa ya zama yana da wani lakabi na zahiri na daban, amma an sakaya shine da sunan 'Maguzanci', kalmar da a hausa ake nufin mutanen da basu da addini. Daga wajen su kalmomi irinsu Noma, Guguwa, Hadari, Shekara da Shekarau suka fito. Waɗannan jinsi na maguzawa kuma, sune suka kafa kusan kafatanin tsoffin biranen dake kasar kano ayau, misalin Rano, Gaya, Gwarzo, Kiru da wasunsu. Koda yake, duk da muna da karancin fahimta akan jinsin Maguzawa, amma da alama suna iya zamowa kabilu mararraba tamkar yadda jinsin fulani suke ayau.
Sannan dai, a littafin 'Kano ta dabo', marubuci marigayi Alh Abubakar Dokaji (Allah ya gafarta masa amin) ya faɗi cewa a tsohuwar kano akwai kabilun Gazargawa dake zaune a jakara, Zadawa dake tsakanin jakara zuwa sontolo, Fangon dake tsakanin Sontolo da Burkum, Zaura dake tsakankanin Bompai da wasai, Dundunzuru dake tsakanin watari zuwa Ɗdutsen karya, Shiriya dake tsakanin sontolo zuwa Shinke, Sheme dake tsakanin Damargu zuwa kazaure, Tokarawa dake tsakanin karmami zuwa Ringim da wasunsu. Dukkan mafi rinjayen waɗannan kabilu sun haɗe guri ɗaya lokaci mai tsawo daya gabata, har takai yaren hausa kurum akeyi a kano, kuma a duk duniya idan kace kano, za'ace maka birnin Hausawa ne.
Mu kalli Katsina. Suma ance Durɓawa ne suka kafa garin tun a karni na sha uku. Wamban Katsina Alhaji Abba Khali ya taɓa faɗa a wata firar sa da gidan radiyon (RFi: Radio france international) cewa waɗanda suka kafa garin katsina sunzo ne daga wani gari mai suna Mani. Garin mani yana nan har yanzu a jihar katsina, to amma ana tsammanin mutanen garin Mani na farko ba hausawa bane, wata kabila ce wadda ta taso daga yankin Mali.
Haka abin yake a zaria. Littafin 'History of Zaria (1350-1902)' na Yakub Hassan ya nuna cewa asalin Birnin Zazzau mutane ne daga Kufena, kuchichchiri, Turanku, Madarkachi, Kargi da Tukur-Tukur sukayi haɗaka wajen kafashi.
Domin kuwa, duk kan waɗancan garuruwa tsoffin gurare ne da binciken akiyoloji ya tabbatar da wanzuwar mutane tun da jimawa kafin kafuwar zazzau a karni na sha uku, kuma akasari waɗancan mutanen kabilu ne mabanbanta misalin Kadarawa, da wasunsu, har dai daga bisani aka samu cewa kabilar Torankawa suka zo suka kwace iko da wurin. A yanzu kuma garin ya rikiɗe izuwa kasar hausa, masarautar su da al'adunsu duk na hausa ne. Suma dai Watakila jikokin waɗancan kabilun ne kusan zamu iyacewa suka ajiye yarukansu da al'adunsu tare da zamowa hausawa zuryan.
Itama kasar Damagaram (Zinder) wadda a yanzu da kasar hausa ake kiranta. Asalinta ance wani mafarauci ne mai suna Zundurma ya fara zama a wurin. Sannu a hankali Barnawa suka rinka kwararowa yankin saboda ance wajen ya kasance turbar kasuwanci ce, har kuma daga bisani aka samu karin kabilu mabanbanta waɗanda mafi akasari yanzu duk sun rikiɗe sun koma hausawa.
A hakika a cikin hausa ta yau akwai Barnawa da yawa. Yawan nasu ma bazai lissafu ba. Tunda an samu cewa akwai garuruwa da dama waɗanda bare-bari ne suka kafasu. yawa-yawan waɗancan bare-bari, wani dalilai ne ya taso dasu izuwa kasashen hausa, sai gashi kuma bayan zamani mai tsawo ya shuɗe, jikokin su duk sun zama hausawa, jinin jikinsu kaɗai ne na kanuri (duk da shima ya gauraya dana sauran kabilu) amma harshe da al'ada duk dana hausa suke amfani.
Irin waɗannan misalan ne a Daura, Zamfara, Gobir, Maraɗi da mafi yawan jihohin hausawa. Abin nema dai anan shine yaya akayi harshen hausa ya haɗiye yarukan waɗancan kabilu ta yadda a yanzu suka zama tarihi?
To, abisa ga falsafar marubucin tarihi Ibn Khaldun, ana gane abinda ya faru a baya ta hanyar fahimtar abinda ke faruwa a yanzu, sannan za'a iya gane menene zai faru anan gaba idan akayi duba na tsanaki bisa abubuwan dake faruwa a yanzu.
A saboda haka, nafi ganin abubuwa biyu ne manya wajen zamowa silar bunkasar harshen hausa.
Na farkon su shine rashin kyamar bakon (mutum) abu matukar bai zo da abu saɓanin fahimtar suba.
Na biyun su kuwa shine karɓar bako tare da maida shi ɗangida.
Ga abinda aka rubuta a Littafin 'waka a bakin mai ita' dangane da wannan:-
"Wani abin sha'awa shine, harshen hausa harshe ne mai iya karɓar kowanne irin salo da harshen larabci yazo dashi ya zauna daram-dam kamar anan aka halicce shi.."
Da yake littafin yana magana ne akan kamanceceniyar ma'aunan gwajin waka na larabci da namu na hausa, amma muna iya cewa wannan abin ba akan larabci da waka kaɗai ya tsaya ba. Domin idan za'a yi bincike za'a samu cewa harshen hausa yayi aro na kalmomi da hikimai daga yaruka mabanbanta, kuma sannu a hankali ya mayar da abinda ya aro ɗin ya zauna daram kamar daman tun can asali akwai shi.
A wani gagarumin bincike da akayi, Dr Aliyu Abubakar ya rubuta a littafinsa 'Al-thakafatul Arabiyya fi Nigeria' cewa yawan kalmomin larabci a cikin hausa sun kai kumusi. (kashi ɗaya bisa biyar, kamar ace aduk kalma biyar ta hausa, ɗaya daga larabci aka aro ta, to idan kuwa da za'a auna da sauran yaruka, da watakila aga wai ina ainihin hausar take?).
Ko kuma idan zamuyi hasashe, zamu iya duba cewar larabawa sun fara shigowa kasashen hausawa don mu'amala tun a wuraren karni na goma sha uku ne. Don haka muna iya cewa a iya shekaru ɗari bakwai na mu'amala tsakanin hausawa da larabawa (1300-2000), tarin kalmomin da hausa ta ara yakai 'khumusi'. Kenan, idan muka ɗauki wancan ma'aunin auna lamurori da Ibn Khaldun ya bamu zamu iyacewa daga karni na bakwai zuwa na goma sha uku (700-1300, wasu shekaru ɗari bakwai baya kenan), hausa ta ari wasu kalmomin da adadinsu zai iya riskar khumusi ko wani abu dake sama ko kasa da haka daga wasu harsunan waɗanda zuwa yanzu zaiyi wuya mu gane su..
A baya-bayan nan kuma,shigowar turawa zuryan da fara mu'amalar su a kasar hausa ta soma ne daga shekarar 1900. Zuwa yanzu Muna iya cewa yaren ingilishi ya shiga cikin hausa a iya waɗannan shekaru ɗari biyun da adadin kalmomi masu tarin yawa, tayadda zaka samu matasan mu zaiyi wuya suyi sa'a guda suna fira ba tare da sunyi amfani da kalmar aro ta ingilishi ba. Watakila kamar haka hausa ta soma a sauran yarukan, kuma muna iya cewa nan da shekaru ɗari biyar masu zuwa tsoffin kalmomin hausa da yawa na iya dulmiyewa tunda an samu musayarsu dana ingilishi.
Don haka, muna iya ganin cewa ɗaukacin kabilun dake tare da hausawa tun tale-tale sun rinka aron kalmomin hausa ne, yayin da suma kuma hausawa na dauri suka rinka aro kalmomi daga garesu, a haka har lokaci yayi da hausa ta haɗiye yawa-yawan yarukan, ta kuma mayarda yawa-yawan kalmomin aro mallakinta.
Watakila kuma saukin hausa wajen yarawa da arowar kalmomi yasa makwabtan hausawa suka fara koyon hausa a hankali-a hankali lokaci mai tsawo daya shuɗe har takai jallin da harshen hausa ya zame musu ɗan tsakiya wajen saduwa tsakanin kabilun dake da banbancin yare da juna.
Zuwa yanzu dai akwai kabilun da sun ma mance da ainihin harshensu, da hausa kurum suke amfani, yayin da wasu kuma suka rike nasu harshen suka kuma riki harshen hausa tayadda idan basuyi hankali ba, shekaru da dama masu zuwa harshen hausa zai haɗiye harshen nasu kamar yadda yayiwa waɗancan yaruka na baya.
Wannan a takaice na iya zama wani abin kamawa dangane da bunkasar harshen hausa a wannan yanki namu..
Zan tsaya anan.. Godiya da yabo ya tabbata ga Allah. Allah yyi daɗin tsira ga Annabi Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa sallam).
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ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA 02

ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(kashi na biyu)
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
Faruwar wannan lamari yasa Gwamna Lugga ya tura sako ga kasarsu Ingila a rohoton da yake turawa gami da labarta musu abinda ya sami Kyaftin Moloney. Shine har yake faɗa musu cewa ba lalle ne ace tafintan Kyaftin Moloney da gayya yayi wannan kasassaɓar ba, amma watakila hakan ta faru ne saboda rashin samun wata fahimta da Kyaftin Moleney yayi dangane da yaren hausa tayadda har ya kasa tantance tsakanin abinda yake karantawa da abinda tafintan sa yake faɗa.
Don haka a karshe Lugga ya bada shawarar cewa a ganinsa mafitar kare aukuwar irin wannan hadari anan gaba shine turawan mulki 'yan uwansa su koyi hausa.
(D.J.M Muffet, concerning Brave Captain, London 1964.)
Ai kuwa hakan akayi, domin an samu cewa Ingila ta bada odar kowanne jami'inta ya fara koyon harshen hausa, an buga sanarwar fara yiwa jami'an mulkin mallaka jarabawar auna fahimtar harshen hausa a jaridar Northern Gazette ta ranar 30 ga watan satumbar shekarar 1902.
Sai dai, abu ne mai matukar wuya a gane wanda yafara rubuta hausa da haruffan romawa (Rubutun Boko) kasancewar bauta ta sanya hausawa sun shiga kasashen larabawa lokaci mai tsawo daya gabata, daga can kuma an tsallaka da wasu izuwa turai da sauran sassan duniya masu nisan gaske duk da zimmar yin bauta.
Kowa yasan anyi zamunna na cinikin bayi a baya, sannan shaharar masautar Borno ba karamar aba bace. Itace akace sarakunan ta sun shahara, har ma akace a wajajen karni na goma sha ɗaya suka fara hurɗa da larabawa, sannan kuma idan yakinsu ya motsa, mamaya suke kawowa dukkanin makwabtan kasashe, ciki kuwa harda kasar hausa. Tana iya kasancewa wani daga turawa ko girkawa ya taba jarraba amsar labaru daga wani bahaushe gami da rubutashi da romanci (boko) amma abin bai fito ga duniya har mun riske shi ba, amma dai mafi dadewar abinda aka samu shine wanda Marubuci Ibrahim Yaro Yahaya (Allah yajikansa da rahama) ya kawo a shafi na 74 na littafinsa mai suna 'Hausa A Rubuce..' inda yakecewa "Watakila za'ayi mamaki aji cewa a kasar Denmark ta turai aka fara samun an rubuta kalmomin hausa acikin rubutun boko tun a karni na goma shatakwas. Yadda abin yafaru shine a cikin shekarar 1772 sarkin Denmark ya tura wakilansa izuwa Arabiya don gudanar da bincike na kimiyya. Acikin wakilan harda wani mai suna B.G Neibuhr, wanda shine kadai ya tsira kuma har ya dawo gida kasarsa. To a wannan shekarar sai wani balaraben Tunis yaje Denmark ziyara, sunan sa Abdurrahman, a tare dashi akwai wani bawansa Bahaushe. Sai sarkin Denmark yasa aka kira Niebuhr domin ya zama tafinta tsakanin sa da balaraben nan kasancewar shi Niebuhr ya koyi larabci a tafiyar da yayi izuwa Arabia. To a wannan gamin ne har abota ta-kullu tsakanin Niebuhr da Abdurrahman, har kuma Niebuhr yayi sha'awar koyon Barbarci da Hausa daga wannan Bawa. Anan ya dukufa yana koyo, ana fada masa kalmomi yana rubutawa.
Ga wasu kalmomi da aka samu Niebuhr ya rubuta a hausar boko kamar yadda yaji daga bakin wannan bawa bahaushe.
Dudsji. Dutse
Ghaui. Gari
Dsjenari. Zinari
Ghurasa. Gurasa
Crua. Ruwa
Sirki. Sarki
Schensali. Shaidani
Berni. Birni
Baya da wannan kuma, sai rubuce-rubucen da J.F Schon yayi da hausa a wuraren 1856 lokacin daya roki Dr. Barth ya bashi aron Yaransa Dorugu da Abega don su taimaka masa wajen yin rubututtukan hausa.
A wancan lokacin ne Dorugu ya rinka faɗar labarun hausa, shikuma yana rubutawa, har aka samu cewa J. F Schon din ya rubuta litttattafai misalin Magana Hausa, Letafin Musa na fari, Labari Nagari, Dictionary of the Hausa da sauransu.
Amma dai idan muka dawo maganar asalin soma rubuta hausa da boko irin wadda har yau muke amfani da ita, to zaifi kyau mu koma kan maganar mu ta sama cewa turawan mulkin mallaka ne suka assasa tare da tabbatar mana da ita.
Farfesa Mahdi Adamu ya tabbatar mana da hakan a shafi na 55 na littafinsa mai suna 'The Hausa factor In West African History'. Kuma ga kadan daga abinda yace :- Karatu da rubutu ta hanyar boko ya samu ga hausawa ne a farkon karni na 20. Saboda a shekarar 1900AD ne gwamnatin Ingila ta karɓe ragamar mulki daga hannun sarakunan hausawa, amma sai a 1903 sojojin Gwamna Lugga suka cinye Kano da Sakkwato a yaki, sanna suka buɗe makaranta ta farko a sokoto tare da malamai biyu watau Mr. Kurdan da mataimakinsa Malam Ibrahim, amma makarantar bata daɗe ba saboda iyaye sunki sanya 'ya'yansu don gudun kada acusa musu akidar kiristanci.
Tun kafin wannan ma, shi kanshi Lugga sai daya kalli Hausawa da yadda sukayi riko da addini tun a lokacin, sannan yayi amannar cewa bai yiwuwa ace za'a koyar dasu boko kamar yadda ake koyar dashi a kasarsu Ingila.
A wani kaulin kuma, cewa akayi tun sa'ar da Lugga yake yaki a kasar nan ya fara sanyawa ana rubuta hausa ta hanyar amfani da rubutun romawa (boko). Saboda kamar yadda muka faɗa tun a baya, Lugga ya fahimci tasiri da bunkasar yaren hausa a wannan yanki na arewa, amma kuma a wurinsa bai yiwuwa ya rubuta hausa da ajami kamar yadda ya samu hausawan lokacin sunayi. Dalilan yin hakan suna da yawa, daga ciki akwai fadin cewa idan za'a rubuta hausa da ajami, sai an koyi yare biyu maimakon ɗaya, watau sai an koyi hausa, sannan kuma an koyi larabci. Amma watakila babban dalilin yafi ga kiyayyar su ga larabawa ko kuma ace kiyayyarsu ga musulunci (kamar yadda babban dalilin kin jinin boko daga hausawa shine kiyayyarsu da kiristanci). Wannan abune da ba sai an ɓoye ba. Lugga ya faɗa cewa baya ganin rashin sanya musulmai a sojinsa a matsayin siyasa, amma a zahiri siyasar ne. Tunda dai kusan ɗaukacin Sojojin nasa ba musulmai bane, mutane ne gwarawa da sauran kabilu marasa addini wadanda suke adawa da musulunci, waɗanda kuma yawa-yawansu suna da matsala daa musulmai tun a lokacin jihadi, don haka suna zucci-zuccin karya daulolin da musulmai suka kafa domin ɗaukar fansa.
A ɗaya ɓangaren kuma, akwai kwatankwacin wannan kiyayyar a zukatan hausawa, kuma tana daga manyan dalilan da yasa hausawa suka kyamaci ilimin boko. Shiyasa sai da aka sha-burtu aka soma sanya yara a makarantun zamani a wancan lokacin, koda yake har izuwa yanzu (kusan shekaru 114 kenan) wasu daga cikin mu hausawa na kallon ilimin boko a matsayin haramtaccen abu kuma gurɓatacce.
Ai a zahirin yakin da turawa sukayi a zamanin mulkin mallaka da 'yan kasa akayi, domin mafi yawan dakarunsu 'yan kasa ne bakaken fata, tunda turawa ba yawa garesu ba a rundunonin, hasali ma wannan yanki namu kamar makabarta ya zamewa turawa saboda yawaitar cututtuka dake musu lahani a yankin.
Shi kuwa rubutun Ajami, turawa da waɗanda ba musulmai ba sna ɗaukarsa a matsayin rubutu ne na Larabci kuma na musulunci, daman kuwa da tun da jimawa turawa da larabawa ba wata ɗasawa suke ta azo agani ba. Idan kuma ba haka ba, to zamu iya cewa baya daga cikin manufar turawa a zuwan su wannan yanki su inganta addinin Islama. Dalili kenan da ba zasu yadda suyi aiki da rubutun ajami ba ballantana har su inganta shi.
Don haka akace babbar sadarwar da sojojin Lugga sukafi fahimta daga gareshi shine rashin sonsa ga musulunci. A zahiri, ban jin an taɓa ruwaito wata kalma ta ɓatanci da Lugga yayiwa Islama, amma a baɗini, ayyukansa nason ganin bayan addinin ne, shiyasa kuma sojojin nasa sukafi kaunar kome za'a rubuta musu, a rubuta musu shi ɗin da yaren hausa, yaren da sukafi sha'awar yarawaa sama da nasu, amma kuma cikin haruffan sabuwar wayewa da kiristocin mulkin mallaka suka kawo, watau romanci.
Bayan anci kano da sokoto da yaki, sai Gwamna Lugga ya sa akayi masa hasashen ɗaliban dake makarantun allo a wannan yanki, inda kintace yanuna cewa akwai misalin makarantun Allo da ake karantar da Addinin musulunci cikin rubutun arabi da ajami misalin dubu 25, sannan ɗaliban dake cikin makarantun sun tasamma dubu 250. Wannan tasa Lugga fahimtar Cewa akwai aiki ja agabansa, amma dai ance da taimakonsa aka kafa makarantar mishan a Bidda a cikin shekara ta 1904, inda aka fara koyawa wasu mutane aciki harda tsirarun musulmai rubutun hausar boko, gami da harshen turanci. Ance ana koyar da daliban ne cikin harsunan mu na gida, watau hausa da nufanci. Gwamna Lugga ya sanar da Ingila yunkurin daya fara na juya rubutun ajami izuwa haruffan Rumawa (Boko) kamar yadda aka samu a kundin takardun dayasha turawa izuwa ingila (Annual Report, Northern Nigeria no. 476, 1903, 332-3)
Daga sanda aka fara samun gagarumar Nasara a fannin boko a kasar hausa kuwa shine wajajen shekara ta 1908, sa'ar da Lugga ya tura Dr. Hans Vischer wanda akafi sani da 'ɗan Hausa' izuwa kasashen Sudan, Misira (Egypt) da Gwalkwas (Ghana) domin yin nazari akan yadda kasashen ke bayar da ilimi ga mutanensu waɗanda akasari musulmai ne, saboda kasancewar hausawa musulmai sunki tura 'ya'yansu a harkar boko. Bayan Dr. Vischer ya dawo gida ne akace ya bude makarantar elementary da ake kira Makarantar ɗan Hausa a Nassarawan jihar kano, wadda akace da dalibai 30 ta soma, sai a hankali daliban suka rinka yawaita. Amma dai daga wannan lokacin ne aka samu cewar an fara fassara littattafai na ilimi wadanda aka rubuta su a wasu yarukan duniya izuwa hausa, aka rubuta su kuma da boko, a sannan gwamnati ta mayar da gausa a arewa a matsayin yaren sadarwa, sannan kuma a hankali har hukumar Norla tazo wadda itama ta bada gagarumar gudunmuwa wajen fassara littattafan ilimi izuwa harshen hausa.
Daga littattafan farko da aka soma fassarawa izuwa harshen hausa da rubutun boko akwai misalin :- Koyon Lissafi, Dare Dubu da ɗaya, Tarihin Garuruwan Borno, da wasu littattafan da dama.
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ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA 01

ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(kashi na ɗaya)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Kafin karni na sha tara, kuma kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka kasar hausa, ɗaukacin masana sun haɗu akan cewa babu rubutun AaBaCaDa a kasar hausa, rubutun hausa da larabci (Ajami) kaɗai aka sani.
Shi kansa rubutun na Ajami, dattijo Marigayi Alh Muhammad Koki ya faɗa mana cewa yaji kaka-da-kakanni cewa asalin hausa babu rubutu har sai lokacin da larabawa suka kawo musulunci. A lokacin ne aka rinka amfani da rubutun larabci wajen sadarwa a rubuce. Har ma yace a wancan zamanin, idan kanaso ka tura wani sako ga wani ɗan uwanka dake rayuwa acan nesa dakai, sai dai kaje ka samu malami daya kware a fannin larabci, ka faɗi masa sakon shikuma yana rubutawa da alkalami a takarda, sannan ka biya lada, kai kuma ka naɗe sakon ka turawa ɗanuwan naka ta hanyar fatake. Shima ɗan uwan idan ya samu sakon, haka zaije ga malami wanda ya iya karatun larabci ya karanta masa sakon gami da fassarawa.
Sai Alhaji Muhammad Koki yace:- sai a wajajen karni na sha shidda zuwa na sha bakwai wani Sarki a Zaria ya kirkiro da dabarar rubuta zantukan hausa da haruffan larabci domin saukakewa da kuma bunkasa harshen na hausa.
Watakila kafin wancan lokacin, malumman bogi sunyi sharafi masu fassara sako gwargwadon abinda suka ga mutum yanaso, ko kuma muce karancin fahimtar wasu kalmomi na larabci sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen dakile harkar sadarwa a kasar hausa, amma samar da ajami sai ya kawo sauyi a harkar.
John Edward Philips ya rubuta a littafin 'Hausa in the Twentieth century' cewa: Fara Rubuta ɗai-ɗaikun kalmomin hausa da haruffan larabci ya samo asali ne tun lokacin da aka fara rubuta littafi da larabci a yankin. Tund a cewar sa Littattafan da aka rubuta na kunshe da sunayen Hausawa kamar misalin Muhammad Rumfa, sarkin kano dayayi mulki a karni na goma sha biyar.
Amma dai, littafi mafi daɗewa da aka samu wanda aka rubuta da Ajami shine littafin 'Riwayar Annabi Musa' da akace wani bakano mai suna Abdullahi Suka ya rubuta tun a wajajen karni na goma sha bakwai.
Daga nan kuma sai wakokin da aka samu Malaman nan na katsina sun rubuta, watau Dan Marina da Dan Masani, waɗanda suma ake hasashen anyi rubutun a zamani ɗaya da wancan na Abdullahi Suka, ko kuma wasu shekaru kaɗan baya da nashi. Daga nan ne kuma littattafai suka rinka samuwa da hausar Ajami, ta inda ake kara bunkasa rubutut-tukan da abubuwan da abaya babu su tun usuli, tun daga karni na sha takwas har zuwa na ashirin.
Marubuci John Edward Philips yayi hasashen cewa hausar boko ta fara ne a lokacin da turawan mulkin mallaka suka iso kasar hausa. A cewar sa Sa'ar da Fredrick Lugard ya zama shugaban 'Royal Niger Company' a ranar ɗaya ga watan janairun 1900, kaɗan daga sojojinsa ke jin yaren Ingilishi, tunda an samu cewa ana fassarawa sojojin Jawabin da Sarauniyar Ingila Victoria ta aiko a karanta musu da yaren Hausa dana Nupe ne.
Tun alokacin, ance Lugard ya fahimci nisan da yaren hausa yayi a zukatan kabilu dake zaune a arewacin Nigeria. Tunda an samu cewa zaka riski mutum yana magana da harshen kabilar sa, yana kuma magana da harshen hausa. Har ma takai jallin da idan hurɗa ta haɗa wasu mutane masu mabam-bantan kabila da harshe, sai kaga sun ajiye harshen su sunyi amfani da hausa wajen sadarwa.
Ga abinda aka taba jiyo Lugard yana cewa dangane da wannan batu:-
Na gamsu matuka wajen samar da daidaito a ɗibar sojoji ba kawai tsakanin kabilu ba, sai dai tsakanin mabiya addinin (Annabi) Muhammad da kuma sauran mutane marasa addini. Ina matukar girmama addinin (Annabi) Muhammadu, don haka bana ɗaukar rashin sanya mabiya addinin na (Annabi) Muhammadu a harkar soji a matsayin siyasa.. A yanzu mun fahimci cewar Kabilu marasa addini irinsu Gwari, Kedar da sauransu duk suna iya magana da harshen hausa, don haka zanfi so nasanyasu a aikin da zarar babban wurin atisayen mu ya Kammala..
Amma dai, duk da kasancewar Lugard yafi son ɗaukar sojoji daga kabilun da bana Hausa ba, ko kuma ace yafi son ɗaukar mutane marasa addini sama da mabiya Addinin musulunci, amma sam-sam baya koyar da sojin sa harshen su na Ingilishi.
Wannan kuma wani wayo ne da masu dabarar yaki suka nakalta. Domin shi yare ai kamar sirri ne, idan har baka jin yaren da ake yarawa, ba zaka iya fahimtar sirrin da ake tattaunawa ba. Wayon anan kuwa shine, su turawa da sojojin su suna jin harshen hausa, harshen da mafi yawan waɗanda suke yak'a ke fuskanta, amma kuma sunki bada wata kafa dasu waɗanda ake yaka zasu koyi turanci balle har su san wani abu daga sirrikan da turawa ke yaɗawa a tsakanin su.
Da wannan Lugard ya nunawa 'yan uwansa turawa muhimmancin kowannensu yakoyi harshen hausa. Ance ma shine asalin wanda ya kirkiro da jarabawar auna fahimtar hausa ga ma'aikatansa turawa kwatankwacin wadda akace Marigayi Sardaunan Sokoto Ahmadu Bello ya kirkiro ga ma'aikatan gwamnati a zamaninsa. Sai dai turawa da yawa sunga baiken Lugard, sai sukayi turjiya kuma akan wannan bukata.
Daga cikin futattun su akwai Kyaftin C. W Moloney, wanda akace ya nuna kyamar sa a fili ga yaren hausa tunda acewar sa Larabawa masu yaɗa addinin Islama ne suka kafa shi, ai kuwa shine wanda akace ya haɗu da hatsarin rashin koyon hausa a Fadar sarkin zariya.
Yadda abin ya auku shine, ance Kyaftin Moloney na gabatar da Jawabi ga jama'ar Zazzau ne a fadar sarkin Zariya a ranar uku ga watan oktoba na shekarar 1902 (tun kafin turawa su gangaro Kano da yaki) shikuma mai tafinta yana fassarawa ga jama'a. Sai rashin fahimta ta dabaibaye tafinta, inda ya rinka sauya zantukan da Kyaftin Moloney ke karantawa da wasu zantukan na daban gwargwadon fahimtarsa. ( Watakila saboda tsauraran kalmomin dake cikin jawabin ko kuma saboda karancin ilimin fassara ga tafintan) A ciki ne yake nunawa jama'ar zazzau cewa Matayensu mallakin turawa ne, kuma turawa na matukar bukatar su, duk wanda yaki amincewa da hakan kuwa zai haɗu da fushin turawa.. Haba, kafin a ankara sai ganin kan Kyaftin Moloney akayi yana mirgin-mirgin a kasa, wani zakakuri ya sare shi saboda bacin ran abinda yaji... Nan take kuwa sai faɗa ya kaure...
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NAZARIN JINSIN MACE DA NAMIJI A KALMOMIN HAUSA



NAZARIN JINSIN MACE DA NAMIJI A KALMOMIN HAUSA
rai_______namiji
mutuwa____mace
arziqi_____namiji
tsiya _____mace
hankali____namiji
wauta ____mace
taimako____namiji
mugunta____mace
qarfi ______namiji
ragwanta____mace
qoqari______namiji
kasala______mace
nema_______namiji
sata _______mace
tausayi______namiji
qeta ______mace
ruwa _____namiji
wuta ______mace
kuđi_______namiji
fatara_____mace
qoshi_______namiji
yunwa______mace
dađi _______namiji
wahala______mace
matsayi_____namiji
qasqanta____mace
karatu______namiji
waqa _______mace
aure_______namiji
zina _______mace
zumunce____namiji
gaba _______mace
kirki________namiji
masifa______mace
aiki _______namiji
caca _______mace
lemo________namiji
giya________mace
wasa_______namiji
rigima______mace
alqawari____namiji
yaudara____mace
Mata kuyi hakuri haka abin yake tun fil'azal 
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ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA (KASHI NA UKU) DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO




ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(KASHI NA UKU)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Bunkasar Harshen Hausa
Abisa fahimta irin tamu, yaren hausa gamayya ce ta haifar dashi. Littafin Babil mai tsarki ya faɗi cewar shekaru da dama da suka gabata (misalin shekaru dubu takwas da suka gabata), mutanen duniya da harshe ɗaya kurum suke amfani, sai daga baya yaruka suka rinka samuwa ta yadda zuwa yanzu akwai kimanin yaruka dubu bakwai a faɗin duniyar nan. Ina tsammanin Littafin Alqur'ani maigirma bai yi magana irin wannan ba, amma duk da haka maganar data fito daga Babil na iya tabbatuwa a kimiyance tunda dai munsan cewa Allah Ubangiji ne ya saukar da littattafan duka guda biyu.
Samuwar harshen hausa na iya zamowa daga haɗakar kalmomi na waɗansu yaruka mabanbanta. Ma'ana, tana iya kasancewa karo-karon kalmomi daga yaruka daban-daban ne ya haɗu ya samar da yaren hausa kachokan ɗinsa, hakan kuwa na iya faruwa ne idan muka kalli hausawan su kansu zamuga cewa kabilu ne da dama suka cakuɗu suka rikiɗe tare da zamowa hausawa lokaci mai tsawo daya shuɗe.
Misali, bari mu ɗauki manyan garuruwan hausa mu ɗanyi karamin nazari akansu:-
A tarihin kafuwar kano, ance wani mai suna Dala ne ya fara zama akan wani dutse wanda daga bisani aka sanya masa suna dala. A hasashe, hakan ta faru tun a wajajen karni na bakwai. Littafin tarihin kano da ake kira 'Kano Chronicle' (Tarih baladil Laziy Musamma Kano) ya ruwaito kwatankwacin haka, har kuma ya rubuta a shafin farko "La na'alamu k'abilatihi'. Ma'ana, bamu san kabilar shi wannan Dala ɗinba wanda hakan ke nuna cewar sam-sam Dala ba Bahaushe bane. Hakan kuma na nuna cewa asalin kalmar Dala itama ba hausa bace.
Daga lokacin Dala da lokacin rayuwar zuriyarsa, kalmomi mabanbanta sun shigo cikin harshen hausa. Kamar misalin Girgije (Sunan Kakan Barbushe, kalmar kuma da hausawa ke nufin Hadari), Magaji daga Magajin Dala, da makamantansu.
Daga bisani akace Bagauda yazo Maɗatai ta kano ya kama noma. A bisa mafi rinjayen magana, Bagauda Bamaguje ne. Shima watakila Sunan kabilar sa Maguzawa, ko kuma sunan kabilar tasa ya zama yana da wani lakabi na zahiri na daban, amma an sakaya shine da sunan 'Maguzanci', kalmar da a hausa ake nufin mutanen da basu da addini. Daga wajen su kalmomi irinsu Noma, Guguwa, Hadari, Shekara da Shekarau suka fito. Waɗannan jinsi na maguzawa kuma, sune suka kafa kusan kafatanin tsoffin biranen dake kasar kano ayau, misalin Rano, Gaya, Gwarzo, Kiru da wasunsu. Koda yake, duk da muna da karancin fahimta akan jinsin Maguzawa, amma da alama suna iya zamowa kabilu mararraba tamkar yadda jinsin fulani suke ayau.
Sannan dai, a littafin 'Kano ta dabo', marubuci marigayi Alh Abubakar Dokaji (Allah ya gafarta masa amin) ya faɗi cewa a tsohuwar kano akwai kabilun Gazargawa dake zaune a jakara, Zadawa dake tsakanin jakara zuwa sontolo, Fangon dake tsakanin Sontolo da Burkum, Zaura dake tsakankanin Bompai da wasai, Dundunzuru dake tsakanin watari zuwa Ɗdutsen karya, Shiriya dake tsakanin sontolo zuwa Shinke, Sheme dake tsakanin Damargu zuwa kazaure, Tokarawa dake tsakanin karmami zuwa Ringim da wasunsu. Dukkan mafi rinjayen waɗannan kabilu sun haɗe guri ɗaya lokaci mai tsawo daya gabata, har takai yaren hausa kurum akeyi a kano, kuma a duk duniya idan kace kano, za'ace maka birnin Hausawa ne.
Mu kalli Katsina. Suma ance Durɓawa ne suka kafa garin tun a karni na sha uku. Wamban Katsina Alhaji Abba Khali ya taɓa faɗa a wata firar sa da gidan radiyon (RFi: Radio france international) cewa waɗanda suka kafa garin katsina sunzo ne daga wani gari mai suna Mani. Garin mani yana nan har yanzu a jihar katsina, to amma ana tsammanin mutanen garin Mani na farko ba hausawa bane, wata kabila ce wadda ta taso daga yankin Mali.
Haka abin yake a zaria. Littafin 'History of Zaria (1350-1902)' na Yakub Hassan ya nuna cewa asalin Birnin Zazzau mutane ne daga Kufena, kuchichchiri, Turanku, Madarkachi, Kargi da Tukur-Tukur sukayi haɗaka wajen kafashi.
Domin kuwa, duk kan waɗancan garuruwa tsoffin gurare ne da binciken akiyoloji ya tabbatar da wanzuwar mutane tun da jimawa kafin kafuwar zazzau a karni na sha uku, kuma akasari waɗancan mutanen kabilu ne mabanbanta misalin Kadarawa, da wasunsu, har dai daga bisani aka samu cewa kabilar Torankawa suka zo suka kwace iko da wurin. A yanzu kuma garin ya rikiɗe izuwa kasar hausa, masarautar su da al'adunsu duk na hausa ne. Suma dai Watakila jikokin waɗancan kabilun ne kusan zamu iyacewa suka ajiye yarukansu da al'adunsu tare da zamowa hausawa zuryan.
Itama kasar Damagaram (Zinder) wadda a yanzu da kasar hausa ake kiranta. Asalinta ance wani mafarauci ne mai suna Zundurma ya fara zama a wurin. Sannu a hankali Barnawa suka rinka kwararowa yankin saboda ance wajen ya kasance turbar kasuwanci ce, har kuma daga bisani aka samu karin kabilu mabanbanta waɗanda mafi akasari yanzu duk sun rikiɗe sun koma hausawa.
A hakika a cikin hausa ta yau akwai Barnawa da yawa. Yawan nasu ma bazai lissafu ba. Tunda an samu cewa akwai garuruwa da dama waɗanda bare-bari ne suka kafasu. yawa-yawan waɗancan bare-bari, wani dalilai ne ya taso dasu izuwa kasashen hausa, sai gashi kuma bayan zamani mai tsawo ya shuɗe, jikokin su duk sun zama hausawa, jinin jikinsu kaɗai ne na kanuri (duk da shima ya gauraya dana sauran kabilu) amma harshe da al'ada duk dana hausa suke amfani.
Irin waɗannan misalan ne a Daura, Zamfara, Gobir, Maraɗi da mafi yawan jihohin hausawa. Abin nema dai anan shine yaya akayi harshen hausa ya haɗiye yarukan waɗancan kabilu ta yadda a yanzu suka zama tarihi?
To, abisa ga falsafar marubucin tarihi Ibn Khaldun, ana gane abinda ya faru a baya ta hanyar fahimtar abinda ke faruwa a yanzu, sannan za'a iya gane menene zai faru anan gaba idan akayi duba na tsanaki bisa abubuwan dake faruwa a yanzu.
A saboda haka, nafi ganin abubuwa biyu ne manya wajen zamowa silar bunkasar harshen hausa.
Na farkon su shine rashin kyamar bakon (mutum) abu matukar bai zo da abu saɓanin fahimtar suba.
Na biyun su kuwa shine karɓar bako tare da maida shi ɗangida.
Ga abinda aka rubuta a Littafin 'waka a bakin mai ita' dangane da wannan:-
"Wani abin sha'awa shine, harshen hausa harshe ne mai iya karɓar kowanne irin salo da harshen larabci yazo dashi ya zauna daram-dam kamar anan aka halicce shi.."
Da yake littafin yana magana ne akan kamanceceniyar ma'aunan gwajin waka na larabci da namu na hausa, amma muna iya cewa wannan abin ba akan larabci da waka kaɗai ya tsaya ba. Domin idan za'a yi bincike za'a samu cewa harshen hausa yayi aro na kalmomi da hikimai daga yaruka mabanbanta, kuma sannu a hankali ya mayar da abinda ya aro ɗin ya zauna daram kamar daman tun can asali akwai shi.
A wani gagarumin bincike da akayi, Dr Aliyu Abubakar ya rubuta a littafinsa 'Al-thakafatul Arabiyya fi Nigeria' cewa yawan kalmomin larabci a cikin hausa sun kai kumusi. (kashi ɗaya bisa biyar, kamar ace aduk kalma biyar ta hausa, ɗaya daga larabci aka aro ta, to idan kuwa da za'a auna da sauran yaruka, da watakila aga wai ina ainihin hausar take?).
Ko kuma idan zamuyi hasashe, zamu iya duba cewar larabawa sun fara shigowa kasashen hausawa don mu'amala tun a wuraren karni na goma sha uku ne. Don haka muna iya cewa a iya shekaru ɗari bakwai na mu'amala tsakanin hausawa da larabawa (1300-2000), tarin kalmomin da hausa ta ara yakai 'khumusi'. Kenan, idan muka ɗauki wancan ma'aunin auna lamurori da Ibn Khaldun ya bamu zamu iyacewa daga karni na bakwai zuwa na goma sha uku (700-1300, wasu shekaru ɗari bakwai baya kenan), hausa ta ari wasu kalmomin da adadinsu zai iya riskar khumusi ko wani abu dake sama ko kasa da haka daga wasu harsunan waɗanda zuwa yanzu zaiyi wuya mu gane su..
A baya-bayan nan kuma,shigowar turawa zuryan da fara mu'amalar su a kasar hausa ta soma ne daga shekarar 1900. Zuwa yanzu Muna iya cewa yaren ingilishi ya shiga cikin hausa a iya waɗannan shekaru ɗari biyun da adadin kalmomi masu tarin yawa, tayadda zaka samu matasan mu zaiyi wuya suyi sa'a guda suna fira ba tare da sunyi amfani da kalmar aro ta ingilishi ba. Watakila kamar haka hausa ta soma a sauran yarukan, kuma muna iya cewa nan da shekaru ɗari biyar masu zuwa tsoffin kalmomin hausa da yawa na iya dulmiyewa tunda an samu musayarsu dana ingilishi.
Don haka, muna iya ganin cewa ɗaukacin kabilun dake tare da hausawa tun tale-tale sun rinka aron kalmomin hausa ne, yayin da suma kuma hausawa na dauri suka rinka aro kalmomi daga garesu, a haka har lokaci yayi da hausa ta haɗiye yawa-yawan yarukan, ta kuma mayarda yawa-yawan kalmomin aro mallakinta.
Watakila kuma saukin hausa wajen yarawa da arowar kalmomi yasa makwabtan hausawa suka fara koyon hausa a hankali-a hankali lokaci mai tsawo daya shuɗe har takai jallin da harshen hausa ya zame musu ɗan tsakiya wajen saduwa tsakanin kabilun dake da banbancin yare da juna.
Zuwa yanzu dai akwai kabilun da sun ma mance da ainihin harshensu, da hausa kurum suke amfani, yayin da wasu kuma suka rike nasu harshen suka kuma riki harshen hausa tayadda idan basuyi hankali ba, shekaru da dama masu zuwa harshen hausa zai haɗiye harshen nasu kamar yadda yayiwa waɗancan yaruka na baya.
Wannan a takaice na iya zama wani abin kamawa dangane da bunkasar harshen hausa a wannan yanki namu..
Zan tsaya anan.. Godiya da yabo ya tabbata ga Allah. Allah yyi daɗin tsira ga Annabi Muhammad (sallalahu alaihi wa sallam).
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ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA (kashi na biyu) Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo




ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(kashi na biyu)
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
Faruwar wannan lamari yasa Gwamna Lugga ya tura sako ga kasarsu Ingila a rohoton da yake turawa gami da labarta musu abinda ya sami Kyaftin Moloney. Shine har yake faɗa musu cewa ba lalle ne ace tafintan Kyaftin Moloney da gayya yayi wannan kasassaɓar ba, amma watakila hakan ta faru ne saboda rashin samun wata fahimta da Kyaftin Moleney yayi dangane da yaren hausa tayadda har ya kasa tantance tsakanin abinda yake karantawa da abinda tafintan sa yake faɗa.
Don haka a karshe Lugga ya bada shawarar cewa a ganinsa mafitar kare aukuwar irin wannan hadari anan gaba shine turawan mulki 'yan uwansa su koyi hausa.
(D.J.M Muffet, concerning Brave Captain, London 1964.)
Ai kuwa hakan akayi, domin an samu cewa Ingila ta bada odar kowanne jami'inta ya fara koyon harshen hausa, an buga sanarwar fara yiwa jami'an mulkin mallaka jarabawar auna fahimtar harshen hausa a jaridar Northern Gazette ta ranar 30 ga watan satumbar shekarar 1902.
Sai dai, abu ne mai matukar wuya a gane wanda yafara rubuta hausa da haruffan romawa (Rubutun Boko) kasancewar bauta ta sanya hausawa sun shiga kasashen larabawa lokaci mai tsawo daya gabata, daga can kuma an tsallaka da wasu izuwa turai da sauran sassan duniya masu nisan gaske duk da zimmar yin bauta.
Kowa yasan anyi zamunna na cinikin bayi a baya, sannan shaharar masautar Borno ba karamar aba bace. Itace akace sarakunan ta sun shahara, har ma akace a wajajen karni na goma sha ɗaya suka fara hurɗa da larabawa, sannan kuma idan yakinsu ya motsa, mamaya suke kawowa dukkanin makwabtan kasashe, ciki kuwa harda kasar hausa. Tana iya kasancewa wani daga turawa ko girkawa ya taba jarraba amsar labaru daga wani bahaushe gami da rubutashi da romanci (boko) amma abin bai fito ga duniya har mun riske shi ba, amma dai mafi dadewar abinda aka samu shine wanda Marubuci Ibrahim Yaro Yahaya (Allah yajikansa da rahama) ya kawo a shafi na 74 na littafinsa mai suna 'Hausa A Rubuce..' inda yakecewa "Watakila za'ayi mamaki aji cewa a kasar Denmark ta turai aka fara samun an rubuta kalmomin hausa acikin rubutun boko tun a karni na goma shatakwas. Yadda abin yafaru shine a cikin shekarar 1772 sarkin Denmark ya tura wakilansa izuwa Arabiya don gudanar da bincike na kimiyya. Acikin wakilan harda wani mai suna B.G Neibuhr, wanda shine kadai ya tsira kuma har ya dawo gida kasarsa. To a wannan shekarar sai wani balaraben Tunis yaje Denmark ziyara, sunan sa Abdurrahman, a tare dashi akwai wani bawansa Bahaushe. Sai sarkin Denmark yasa aka kira Niebuhr domin ya zama tafinta tsakanin sa da balaraben nan kasancewar shi Niebuhr ya koyi larabci a tafiyar da yayi izuwa Arabia. To a wannan gamin ne har abota ta-kullu tsakanin Niebuhr da Abdurrahman, har kuma Niebuhr yayi sha'awar koyon Barbarci da Hausa daga wannan Bawa. Anan ya dukufa yana koyo, ana fada masa kalmomi yana rubutawa.
Ga wasu kalmomi da aka samu Niebuhr ya rubuta a hausar boko kamar yadda yaji daga bakin wannan bawa bahaushe.
Dudsji. Dutse
Ghaui. Gari
Dsjenari. Zinari
Ghurasa. Gurasa
Crua. Ruwa
Sirki. Sarki
Schensali. Shaidani
Berni. Birni
Baya da wannan kuma, sai rubuce-rubucen da J.F Schon yayi da hausa a wuraren 1856 lokacin daya roki Dr. Barth ya bashi aron Yaransa Dorugu da Abega don su taimaka masa wajen yin rubututtukan hausa.
A wancan lokacin ne Dorugu ya rinka faɗar labarun hausa, shikuma yana rubutawa, har aka samu cewa J. F Schon din ya rubuta litttattafai misalin Magana Hausa, Letafin Musa na fari, Labari Nagari, Dictionary of the Hausa da sauransu.
Amma dai idan muka dawo maganar asalin soma rubuta hausa da boko irin wadda har yau muke amfani da ita, to zaifi kyau mu koma kan maganar mu ta sama cewa turawan mulkin mallaka ne suka assasa tare da tabbatar mana da ita.
Farfesa Mahdi Adamu ya tabbatar mana da hakan a shafi na 55 na littafinsa mai suna 'The Hausa factor In West African History'. Kuma ga kadan daga abinda yace :- Karatu da rubutu ta hanyar boko ya samu ga hausawa ne a farkon karni na 20. Saboda a shekarar 1900AD ne gwamnatin Ingila ta karɓe ragamar mulki daga hannun sarakunan hausawa, amma sai a 1903 sojojin Gwamna Lugga suka cinye Kano da Sakkwato a yaki, sanna suka buɗe makaranta ta farko a sokoto tare da malamai biyu watau Mr. Kurdan da mataimakinsa Malam Ibrahim, amma makarantar bata daɗe ba saboda iyaye sunki sanya 'ya'yansu don gudun kada acusa musu akidar kiristanci.
Tun kafin wannan ma, shi kanshi Lugga sai daya kalli Hausawa da yadda sukayi riko da addini tun a lokacin, sannan yayi amannar cewa bai yiwuwa ace za'a koyar dasu boko kamar yadda ake koyar dashi a kasarsu Ingila.
A wani kaulin kuma, cewa akayi tun sa'ar da Lugga yake yaki a kasar nan ya fara sanyawa ana rubuta hausa ta hanyar amfani da rubutun romawa (boko). Saboda kamar yadda muka faɗa tun a baya, Lugga ya fahimci tasiri da bunkasar yaren hausa a wannan yanki na arewa, amma kuma a wurinsa bai yiwuwa ya rubuta hausa da ajami kamar yadda ya samu hausawan lokacin sunayi. Dalilan yin hakan suna da yawa, daga ciki akwai fadin cewa idan za'a rubuta hausa da ajami, sai an koyi yare biyu maimakon ɗaya, watau sai an koyi hausa, sannan kuma an koyi larabci. Amma watakila babban dalilin yafi ga kiyayyar su ga larabawa ko kuma ace kiyayyarsu ga musulunci (kamar yadda babban dalilin kin jinin boko daga hausawa shine kiyayyarsu da kiristanci). Wannan abune da ba sai an ɓoye ba. Lugga ya faɗa cewa baya ganin rashin sanya musulmai a sojinsa a matsayin siyasa, amma a zahiri siyasar ne. Tunda dai kusan ɗaukacin Sojojin nasa ba musulmai bane, mutane ne gwarawa da sauran kabilu marasa addini wadanda suke adawa da musulunci, waɗanda kuma yawa-yawansu suna da matsala daa musulmai tun a lokacin jihadi, don haka suna zucci-zuccin karya daulolin da musulmai suka kafa domin ɗaukar fansa.
A ɗaya ɓangaren kuma, akwai kwatankwacin wannan kiyayyar a zukatan hausawa, kuma tana daga manyan dalilan da yasa hausawa suka kyamaci ilimin boko. Shiyasa sai da aka sha-burtu aka soma sanya yara a makarantun zamani a wancan lokacin, koda yake har izuwa yanzu (kusan shekaru 114 kenan) wasu daga cikin mu hausawa na kallon ilimin boko a matsayin haramtaccen abu kuma gurɓatacce.
Ai a zahirin yakin da turawa sukayi a zamanin mulkin mallaka da 'yan kasa akayi, domin mafi yawan dakarunsu 'yan kasa ne bakaken fata, tunda turawa ba yawa garesu ba a rundunonin, hasali ma wannan yanki namu kamar makabarta ya zamewa turawa saboda yawaitar cututtuka dake musu lahani a yankin.
Shi kuwa rubutun Ajami, turawa da waɗanda ba musulmai ba sna ɗaukarsa a matsayin rubutu ne na Larabci kuma na musulunci, daman kuwa da tun da jimawa turawa da larabawa ba wata ɗasawa suke ta azo agani ba. Idan kuma ba haka ba, to zamu iya cewa baya daga cikin manufar turawa a zuwan su wannan yanki su inganta addinin Islama. Dalili kenan da ba zasu yadda suyi aiki da rubutun ajami ba ballantana har su inganta shi.
Don haka akace babbar sadarwar da sojojin Lugga sukafi fahimta daga gareshi shine rashin sonsa ga musulunci. A zahiri, ban jin an taɓa ruwaito wata kalma ta ɓatanci da Lugga yayiwa Islama, amma a baɗini, ayyukansa nason ganin bayan addinin ne, shiyasa kuma sojojin nasa sukafi kaunar kome za'a rubuta musu, a rubuta musu shi ɗin da yaren hausa, yaren da sukafi sha'awar yarawaa sama da nasu, amma kuma cikin haruffan sabuwar wayewa da kiristocin mulkin mallaka suka kawo, watau romanci.
Bayan anci kano da sokoto da yaki, sai Gwamna Lugga ya sa akayi masa hasashen ɗaliban dake makarantun allo a wannan yanki, inda kintace yanuna cewa akwai misalin makarantun Allo da ake karantar da Addinin musulunci cikin rubutun arabi da ajami misalin dubu 25, sannan ɗaliban dake cikin makarantun sun tasamma dubu 250. Wannan tasa Lugga fahimtar Cewa akwai aiki ja agabansa, amma dai ance da taimakonsa aka kafa makarantar mishan a Bidda a cikin shekara ta 1904, inda aka fara koyawa wasu mutane aciki harda tsirarun musulmai rubutun hausar boko, gami da harshen turanci. Ance ana koyar da daliban ne cikin harsunan mu na gida, watau hausa da nufanci. Gwamna Lugga ya sanar da Ingila yunkurin daya fara na juya rubutun ajami izuwa haruffan Rumawa (Boko) kamar yadda aka samu a kundin takardun dayasha turawa izuwa ingila (Annual Report, Northern Nigeria no. 476, 1903, 332-3)
Daga sanda aka fara samun gagarumar Nasara a fannin boko a kasar hausa kuwa shine wajajen shekara ta 1908, sa'ar da Lugga ya tura Dr. Hans Vischer wanda akafi sani da 'ɗan Hausa' izuwa kasashen Sudan, Misira (Egypt) da Gwalkwas (Ghana) domin yin nazari akan yadda kasashen ke bayar da ilimi ga mutanensu waɗanda akasari musulmai ne, saboda kasancewar hausawa musulmai sunki tura 'ya'yansu a harkar boko. Bayan Dr. Vischer ya dawo gida ne akace ya bude makarantar elementary da ake kira Makarantar ɗan Hausa a Nassarawan jihar kano, wadda akace da dalibai 30 ta soma, sai a hankali daliban suka rinka yawaita. Amma dai daga wannan lokacin ne aka samu cewar an fara fassara littattafai na ilimi wadanda aka rubuta su a wasu yarukan duniya izuwa hausa, aka rubuta su kuma da boko, a sannan gwamnati ta mayar da gausa a arewa a matsayin yaren sadarwa, sannan kuma a hankali har hukumar Norla tazo wadda itama ta bada gagarumar gudunmuwa wajen fassara littattafan ilimi izuwa harshen hausa.
Daga littattafan farko da aka soma fassarawa izuwa harshen hausa da rubutun boko akwai misalin :- Koyon Lissafi, Dare Dubu da ɗaya, Tarihin Garuruwan Borno, da wasu littattafan da dama.
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ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA (kashi na ɗaya) DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO




ASALIN FARA RUBUTUN BOKO DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA
(kashi na ɗaya)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Kafin karni na sha tara, kuma kafin zuwan turawan mulkin mallaka kasar hausa, ɗaukacin masana sun haɗu akan cewa babu rubutun AaBaCaDa a kasar hausa, rubutun hausa da larabci (Ajami) kaɗai aka sani.
Shi kansa rubutun na Ajami, dattijo Marigayi Alh Muhammad Koki ya faɗa mana cewa yaji kaka-da-kakanni cewa asalin hausa babu rubutu har sai lokacin da larabawa suka kawo musulunci. A lokacin ne aka rinka amfani da rubutun larabci wajen sadarwa a rubuce. Har ma yace a wancan zamanin, idan kanaso ka tura wani sako ga wani ɗan uwanka dake rayuwa acan nesa dakai, sai dai kaje ka samu malami daya kware a fannin larabci, ka faɗi masa sakon shikuma yana rubutawa da alkalami a takarda, sannan ka biya lada, kai kuma ka naɗe sakon ka turawa ɗanuwan naka ta hanyar fatake. Shima ɗan uwan idan ya samu sakon, haka zaije ga malami wanda ya iya karatun larabci ya karanta masa sakon gami da fassarawa.
Sai Alhaji Muhammad Koki yace:- sai a wajajen karni na sha shidda zuwa na sha bakwai wani Sarki a Zaria ya kirkiro da dabarar rubuta zantukan hausa da haruffan larabci domin saukakewa da kuma bunkasa harshen na hausa.
Watakila kafin wancan lokacin, malumman bogi sunyi sharafi masu fassara sako gwargwadon abinda suka ga mutum yanaso, ko kuma muce karancin fahimtar wasu kalmomi na larabci sun taka muhimmiyar rawa wajen dakile harkar sadarwa a kasar hausa, amma samar da ajami sai ya kawo sauyi a harkar.
John Edward Philips ya rubuta a littafin 'Hausa in the Twentieth century' cewa: Fara Rubuta ɗai-ɗaikun kalmomin hausa da haruffan larabci ya samo asali ne tun lokacin da aka fara rubuta littafi da larabci a yankin. Tund a cewar sa Littattafan da aka rubuta na kunshe da sunayen Hausawa kamar misalin Muhammad Rumfa, sarkin kano dayayi mulki a karni na goma sha biyar.
Amma dai, littafi mafi daɗewa da aka samu wanda aka rubuta da Ajami shine littafin 'Riwayar Annabi Musa' da akace wani bakano mai suna Abdullahi Suka ya rubuta tun a wajajen karni na goma sha bakwai.
Daga nan kuma sai wakokin da aka samu Malaman nan na katsina sun rubuta, watau Dan Marina da Dan Masani, waɗanda suma ake hasashen anyi rubutun a zamani ɗaya da wancan na Abdullahi Suka, ko kuma wasu shekaru kaɗan baya da nashi. Daga nan ne kuma littattafai suka rinka samuwa da hausar Ajami, ta inda ake kara bunkasa rubutut-tukan da abubuwan da abaya babu su tun usuli, tun daga karni na sha takwas har zuwa na ashirin.
Marubuci John Edward Philips yayi hasashen cewa hausar boko ta fara ne a lokacin da turawan mulkin mallaka suka iso kasar hausa. A cewar sa Sa'ar da Fredrick Lugard ya zama shugaban 'Royal Niger Company' a ranar ɗaya ga watan janairun 1900, kaɗan daga sojojinsa ke jin yaren Ingilishi, tunda an samu cewa ana fassarawa sojojin Jawabin da Sarauniyar Ingila Victoria ta aiko a karanta musu da yaren Hausa dana Nupe ne.
Tun alokacin, ance Lugard ya fahimci nisan da yaren hausa yayi a zukatan kabilu dake zaune a arewacin Nigeria. Tunda an samu cewa zaka riski mutum yana magana da harshen kabilar sa, yana kuma magana da harshen hausa. Har ma takai jallin da idan hurɗa ta haɗa wasu mutane masu mabam-bantan kabila da harshe, sai kaga sun ajiye harshen su sunyi amfani da hausa wajen sadarwa.
Ga abinda aka taba jiyo Lugard yana cewa dangane da wannan batu:-
Na gamsu matuka wajen samar da daidaito a ɗibar sojoji ba kawai tsakanin kabilu ba, sai dai tsakanin mabiya addinin (Annabi) Muhammad da kuma sauran mutane marasa addini. Ina matukar girmama addinin (Annabi) Muhammadu, don haka bana ɗaukar rashin sanya mabiya addinin na (Annabi) Muhammadu a harkar soji a matsayin siyasa.. A yanzu mun fahimci cewar Kabilu marasa addini irinsu Gwari, Kedar da sauransu duk suna iya magana da harshen hausa, don haka zanfi so nasanyasu a aikin da zarar babban wurin atisayen mu ya Kammala..
Amma dai, duk da kasancewar Lugard yafi son ɗaukar sojoji daga kabilun da bana Hausa ba, ko kuma ace yafi son ɗaukar mutane marasa addini sama da mabiya Addinin musulunci, amma sam-sam baya koyar da sojin sa harshen su na Ingilishi.
Wannan kuma wani wayo ne da masu dabarar yaki suka nakalta. Domin shi yare ai kamar sirri ne, idan har baka jin yaren da ake yarawa, ba zaka iya fahimtar sirrin da ake tattaunawa ba. Wayon anan kuwa shine, su turawa da sojojin su suna jin harshen hausa, harshen da mafi yawan waɗanda suke yak'a ke fuskanta, amma kuma sunki bada wata kafa dasu waɗanda ake yaka zasu koyi turanci balle har su san wani abu daga sirrikan da turawa ke yaɗawa a tsakanin su.
Da wannan Lugard ya nunawa 'yan uwansa turawa muhimmancin kowannensu yakoyi harshen hausa. Ance ma shine asalin wanda ya kirkiro da jarabawar auna fahimtar hausa ga ma'aikatansa turawa kwatankwacin wadda akace Marigayi Sardaunan Sokoto Ahmadu Bello ya kirkiro ga ma'aikatan gwamnati a zamaninsa. Sai dai turawa da yawa sunga baiken Lugard, sai sukayi turjiya kuma akan wannan bukata.
Daga cikin futattun su akwai Kyaftin C. W Moloney, wanda akace ya nuna kyamar sa a fili ga yaren hausa tunda acewar sa Larabawa masu yaɗa addinin Islama ne suka kafa shi, ai kuwa shine wanda akace ya haɗu da hatsarin rashin koyon hausa a Fadar sarkin zariya.
Yadda abin ya auku shine, ance Kyaftin Moloney na gabatar da Jawabi ga jama'ar Zazzau ne a fadar sarkin Zariya a ranar uku ga watan oktoba na shekarar 1902 (tun kafin turawa su gangaro Kano da yaki) shikuma mai tafinta yana fassarawa ga jama'a. Sai rashin fahimta ta dabaibaye tafinta, inda ya rinka sauya zantukan da Kyaftin Moloney ke karantawa da wasu zantukan na daban gwargwadon fahimtarsa. ( Watakila saboda tsauraran kalmomin dake cikin jawabin ko kuma saboda karancin ilimin fassara ga tafintan) A ciki ne yake nunawa jama'ar zazzau cewa Matayensu mallakin turawa ne, kuma turawa na matukar bukatar su, duk wanda yaki amincewa da hakan kuwa zai haɗu da fushin turawa.. Haba, kafin a ankara sai ganin kan Kyaftin Moloney akayi yana mirgin-mirgin a kasa, wani zakakuri ya sare shi saboda bacin ran abinda yaji... Nan take kuwa sai faɗa ya kaure...
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FASSARAR FINA-FINAN INDIA ZUWA HARSHEN HAUSA: LALE MARHABAN DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA

FASSARAR FINA-FINAN INDIYA ZUWA HARSHEN HAUSA LALE MAHARBAN DA BUNKASAR HARSHEN HAUSA.
Daga Abu Hidaya.
Babu shakka samuwar wadannan fina-finai cikin harshen hausa ba karamin ciyar da harshen hausa gaba zai yi ba.
Duba da yadda masu fassarar suke kokari wajen fassara ko wacce kalma da hausartacciyar Hausa.
Idan ana maganar Hausantaccen Fim din Hausa kamfanin "Algaita "Record" ko "Speedy Ventures" sune suka yi fice a wannan fage.
Kuma tabbas za'a matukar amfana da wannan sauyi domin cigaba ne a fagen bunkasar harshe.
Na dade ina kallon fina-finan Hausa wadanda masu ikirarin halattun kabilar Hausa ko abokan hausawa suka shirya, amma har yau in banda haushi da takaici babu abinda nake karuwa dashi,
domin mafi yawa daga cikin Fina-finansu babu hikima balle azancin magana.
Abin mamaki shine nakan iya zama da yara na kalli fassararren Fim din Hausa mu yi raha mu yi nishadi ba tare da jin kunya ko danasani ba.
Amma fim din da aka shirya cikin harshena yana min wahalar kallo da yara.
Wani karin abin mamakin shine yadda zaka ji dadadan kalamai masu dadin ji da sauraro daga fassararrun fina-finai cikin harshen Hausa.
Tambayar a nan ita ce shin mu bamu da hikima ko tunanin samar da wadannan kalamai da azancin zance cikin fina-finanmu?
Nasan wani zai ce ai ana yi, ni ma ba wai nace bane ba'a yi bane, sai dai zantukan fina-finan asalin Hausa ko da yaro ya yi wasu ba zai burge ba balle manya da ke furtasu da sunan barkwanci ko kalaman so.
Dan haka ina baiwa masu fina-finan asalin Hausa da su yi ko yi da masu Fassara Fina-finan ketare cikin harshen hausa wajen samar da zubi da tsari gami da jerantuwar hikimar zance da azanci harshe fina-finansu don nishadantuwar masu kallon FINA-FINAN su.

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KALMOMIN DA MU HAUSAWA DA KUMA INDIYA DUK MUKA ARO DAGA LARABAWA

KALMOMI DA MU HAUSAWA DA KUMA INDIYAWA DUK MUKA ARO DAGA LARABAWA :
tare dani AbbaIndiaDala.
Hindi :IMAAN
Hausa :IMANI
Arabic :AL-IMAAN.
Hindi:HUKUMAT
Hausa :HUKUMA
Arabic :HUKUMAT
Hindi:AMANAT
Hausa:AMANA
arabic :AL-AMANAT
Hindi:DUNYA
Hausa:DANIYA
arabic:AL-DUNYA
Hindi:saboon
Hausa :sabulu
Arabic : Al-sabun
Hindi : zaalim
Hausa:Azzalumi
Arabic : Al-zalim
Hindi : mulk
Hausa :mulki
Arabic : Al-mulk
Hindi: chay
Hausa :shayi
Arabic : shayi
Akwai Su da yawa wadanda mukayi tarayya wajen aro su akwai kuma wadanda muka samu Banbanci su suka aro nasu daban daga can muma muka aro namu daban ..
Misalin wanda Hindi suka aro daga LARABAWA:-
Arabic----->Hindi :Qabool=KARBA
Arabic ---->Hindi:Ijazaat = IZINI..
Arabic ---->Hindi=waqt=LOKACI
Arabic --->Hindi:qarib=KUSA
Arabic ---->Hindi: izzat =MUTUMCI
arabic ----->Hindi:qaatil= MAKASHI
Arabic --->hindi :Imtihaan =JARRABAWA.
Dasauransu..

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HARAMTATTUN KARIN MAGANAR DA HAUSAWA KE YI

HARAMTATTUN KARIN MAGANAR DA
HAUSAWA KEYI.
1- Dodo daya akewa tsafi.
2- Oh Allah nawa Annabi na uwata.
3- Taya Allah kiwo yafi Allah nanan.
4- Duk dadinka da Allah saiya
kasheka.
5- Kare da kudinsa sai yasha
lahaula.
6- Dasanin Allah malam yasha giya.
7- Allah ubana inji shegiya
8- Gafara Allah bamaguje ya taka
masallaci
9- Gwari kinsan Allah, tace ga- gida-
ga-gida .
10- Hmm..shakiyyi Allah na
tsoronka.
11- Katankatana mutuwar almuru.
12- Allah nadawo inji matar dan
cirani.
13- Banga alamaba ance da kuturu
Allah ya sawake.
14- Allah gyara makaho yace a
yaushe.
Don Allah a rinqa kiyayewa wajen
sanin abinda za'a fada a wajen karin
magana. Mu gujewa fadawa cikin
fushin Ubangiji ba tare da sani ba.
Allah Ya kiyashemu kuma Ya
tsaremuna Imaninmu.
FORWARDED AS RECEIVED, IN
AKWAI GYARA DON ALLAH KA/KIYI,Daga Wani Dan Uwanku a MUSULUNCI.

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TARIHIN ASALIN HAUSA DA HAUSAWA

Taskar Hikayoyi
Tarihin Asalin Hausa da Hausawa.
Gudummuwa daga Maigirma farfesa Ibrahim Malumfashi.
GA TAWA GUDUNMUWAR!
Batun gaskiya shi ne, ba Bayajidda ko Abii Yazid ne ya
zo kasar Daura ba! Domin ba yadda za a yi ya kasance
haka in ba fatalwa ba ce shi! Abii Yazid bai taka kasar
Hausa ba. Ba kuma Balarabe ba ne in ma ya zo kasar
Hausa kamar yadda tatsuniyar Palmer ta samar, domin
shi Barbar ne. Ba kuma mutumin Bagadaza ba ne a
kasar Irak, mutumin yankin Tunisiya ne, haifaffen
yankin Afirka Ta Yamma a yanzu. Bisa wannan tunani
muna iya cewa ba shi ne ya zama Sarkin Daura a
shekara ta 1,000 da muka gani a cikin littafin Palmer
da aka buga a 1928 ba. An dai kirkire shi ne a cikin
littafin Palmer na biyu a shekarar 1936. Bisa wane
dalili? Shi ne ba za a iya tabbatarwa a halin yanzu ba!
Mun dauki wannan dogon lokaci muna bin wannan
tarihi da kuma tattace duk wani bayani domin mu kara
tabbatar da rashin ingancin wannan taririhi, duk da
cewa mun ce ana iya samun kanshin gaskiya a cikin
taririhin, amma ba wani bincike da ya nuna cewa Abii
Yazid ko Bayajidda ne ya zo kasar Hausa ya auri
Daurama. Kenan akwai tababa ga dukkan bayanan da
ke tattare da taririhin.
Saboda haka abin da za mu yi shi ne, mu bi tarihin
wadanda suka kasance ginshikan wannan tarihihi, mu
ga shin su din ma sun kasance gaskiya ko kuwa dai
abin da aka saba fada ne na kunne-ya-girmi-kaka,
wanda yawanci bai zama gaskiya ba?
Mu soma da ita Daurama, bayanai da binciken masana
ya nuna cewa ita kan ta ba ta da wani tsayayyen
tarihin asali. Wasu masu bincike sun ce sunanta na
asali Fatima, ke nan musulma ce, amma kuma daga
irin yadda bayanai suka zo game da ita, bai yiwuwa a
ce musulma ce, domin kuwa al’adun da ake a kasar
Daura a zamaninta, ba na Musulunci ba ne. An kuma ce
wai a lokacin da aka haife ta ba ta jin Larabci ko
Tamashek, haka ta girma, shi ya sa ma wasu daga
cikin mutanen kasar suka ce ai ba ta jin Hausa a cikin
cikin harshen mutanen yankin na Larabci, wai daga nan
aka sami harshen Hausa.
Wannan ma bai iya zama gaskiya, domin da Larabci
mutanen nata suka yi magana, ita kuma me ya hana ta
iya yin Larabcin? Haka kuma wasu masana sun ce ai
sunanta na asali shi ne Dauratu, kuma diyar maharba
ce, wadda ta nakalci tsafe-tsafe, ke nan Fatima ba ita
ce Dauratu ba, domin tsafi bai tafiya da Musulunci, sai
fa in gamade ake yi. Wasu masanan ma cewa suka yi
ai ita da kanta zuwa aka yi da ita Daura ba ‘yan kasar
ba ce, domin wai baiwa ce daga cikin bayin sarakunan
Daular Bornu ce. Wai sayo ta aka yi, aka zo da ita
Daura, har ta zama wata jaruma ta mulki jama’ar
kasar. Kenan ba abin da ya hada ta da sauran Daurama
9 da aka yi kafin zuwanta Daura, kila su ma duk baki
ne, ba ‘yan kasa ba!
Idan kuma muka koma ga shi kan sa Karba-Gari, dan
kuyangar Daurama, za a ga cewa shi ma dai bai da
cikakken bayanin asali. Wasu na cewa ai bawa ne daga
Bornu ne shi ma. Wasu suka ce ai Bakibde ne. Wasu
kuma suka ce ba a ma yi shi ba, shaci-fadi ne.
Shi kuwa Bawo dan Daurama, daga sunansa aka fara
samun tababa na ko shi ma da ne ba bawa ba. Wasu
masana sun ce ai sunan nasa na asali Bawa ne, ke nan
bawan mutanen Bornu ne shi ma, kamar ita Daurama.
Wasu suka ce ai shi ma Bakibde ne daga Masar. Wasu
kuma suka danganta shi da Babar na Arewacin Afirka.
Daga binciken masana, ba wani da ya ce haihuwar
Bawo aka yi Daura kamar yadda tarihihin Bayajidda ya
nuna, sai dai a ce zuwa ya yi da girmansa.
Shi kuwa Bagauda da aka ce ya sari sabon birnin Kano,
shi ma an nuna cewa zuwa ya yi da girmansa, kuma
sunan Bagauda lakabi ne, ba sunan yanka ba, shi ya
wasu ke ce da shi Bagoda, ko kuma Bakoda, ko kuma
mutumin da ya fito daga al’ummar Copitcs, Kibdawa,
kenan Bakibde ne, wato mutumin kasar Masar ne shi
ma.
Ke nan Bagauda ba shi ne asalin Kano ba, ba kuma dan
Bawo ba ne ko jikan Bayajidda, wani dakaren ne can
daban, kila daga cikin dakaru ko ‘ya’yan Bayajidda ko
Abii Yazid da muka yi bayani can baya! Me ya sa muka
ce haka? Ko a cikin Tarihin Sarakunan Kano da ake
bayanin Bagauda cewa aka yi a daidai shekara ta 1,000
Bagauda ya yi zama a wani gari da ake kira Adirani har
tsawon shekara biyu, daga nan ya wuce zuwa wani gari
da ake ce da shi Barka, nan ma kusan shekara biyu ya
yi, daga can sai garin Sheme, a kasar Kazaure, inda
daga can ne ya isa Kano. A Kanon ne ko dai shi ko
danginsa suka yi mulki na kusan tsawon shekara 60.
Tambayar da za a iya yi ita ce, shin ana haihuwarsa ne
ya bar gida don mulkin wadannan kasashe? Ko kuwa
dai sai da aka dauki tsawon lokaci? An yi wannan
tambaya ne ganin cewa yawancin tarihe-tarihen da ake
da su game da Abii Yazid ko Bayajidda da zuwansa
kasar Daura daga shekara ta 1,000 ko 1,100 suka fara.
Da yake kuma ba wani takamaiman lokaci ko rana ko
wata ko kuma shekara da aka nuna cewa sun iso kasar
Hausa ko Daura, ba mai iya cewa ga daidai lokacin da
aka haife su ko yadda suka girma har suka fice daga
Daura ko Biram domin zama asasin Hausa Bakwai da
Banza Bakwai. Abin da muka riga muka ayyana tun can
baya daga nazarce-nazarcen masana shi ne, wanda ake
kira Abii Yazid ko Bayajidda ya dai rasu tun a shekarar
947, saboda haka shekara 53 ko 153 ke nan iyalansa
ko dakarunsa suka yi bisa hanya kafin su shigo Daura,
idan har sun shigo din, har aka yi aure da Daurama.
Akalla ana neman shekara kafin a haihu, idan kuma an
haihu (wato su Karba-Gari da Bawo), ana bukatar a
girma, a zama mutane kafin a hau kan gadon sarauta.
Idan mun dauki shekarun girma daga 16 zuwa sama, ke
nan akalla ‘ya’yan za su kasance ‘yan shekara 18 kafin
su yi aure da haihuwa da hawan gadon sarauta. An ce
Bawo ya haifi ‘ya’yan nasa su shida (duk da ba mu san
wane ne na farko ba) cikin su akwai Bagauda, akalla
shi ma zai yi shekara 18 kafin ya fita watangaririya
zuwa wasu sassa na duniya. Idan kuma muka bi tafiye-
tafiyen Bagauda zuwa Adirani da Barka da Sheme, inda
akalla ya yi shekara 6, a daidai lokacin da ya isa Kano
yana da shekara 24 ke nan. A nan kuma shi da
iyalansa da magada sun yi mulkin shekara 60, za mu ce
ke nan daga shekara ta 1,000 ko 1,100 zuwa karshen
mulkin Bagauda a Kano, an sami shekara 102. Kenan
idan tarihin daidai ne, karshen mulkin Bagauda a Kano
zai kama a shekara ta 1102 ko1202, wanda daga
dukkan bincike da hannu ya kai gare su, ba hakan ba
ne.

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ASALIN INDA KALMAR HAUSA TA FITO

ASALIN INDA KALMAR 'HAUSA' TA FITO
(Tsakure daga Muk'alar Nazarin Tarihin Hausa)
Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
Hakika, sanin inda kalmar hausa ta samo asali abin bukata ne a garemu, duba da yadda muke da kauna gami da soyuwar son jin tarihi mafi gaskiya na wannan harshe namu.
Idan wasu sunce asalin kalmar 'Bahaushe' wadda ake lakabawa wanda duk ya fito daga masu yara harshen Hausa, ta zone daga kalmar 'Baushe', ma'anarta kuma mafarauci, to sai muce ita kalmar hausa kuma daga ina ta samo tushiya?
Kalmar Hausa ance bakuwa ce, wai daga baya tazo. Ance ma masanin tarihi Leo Africanus ya tabbatar da cewa a zuwansa Katsina da Kano a karni na sha biyar, baiji ana faɗin sunan hausa ba, kuma da yaren gobiranci yaji ana magana.
Haka kuma manazartan littafin nan mai ɗauke da tarihin kano mai suna 'Kano chronicle' sun tabbatar da cewa tun daga zamanin Bagauda har zuwa kan Abdullahi Burja, ba'a amfani da kalmar hausa. Sai a wuraren karni na sha biyar, lokacin ɗansa Yakubu aka soma jinta
Tabbas, hakan na iya zama gaskiya, sai dai akwai-ja a maganar yaren gobiranci da akace Leo Africanus ya tarar ana yarawa a kadar hausa.
Domin masu bada tarihin Gobirawa sunce asali daga misira suke, yaki ya korosu, suka rinka sauka da tashi a wurare mabanbanta, sai a karni na sha biyar suka riski birnin Lalle da Gwararramu. Kunga kenan a wancan lokacin (karni na shabiyar) basu iso inda kasar hausa take ba a yanzu.
Sannan kuma a wancan lokacin, wasu littattafai sun bada tabbacin wanzuwar wasu kabilu a wannan yanki namu. Misali, kabilun Maguzawa, Katukawa, Gazargawa, Tokarawa, Damarguzawa da sauransu.
Hakan na iya nufin Kabilar hausa mai yara yaren hausa itama ta wanzu amma dai bada Hausa ake kiranta ba, kuma sai daga bisani ta bunkasa tare da haɗiye ɗaukacin kabilun dake makwabtaka da ita.
Amma dai ga binda wasu masana suka faɗa dangane da asalin kalmar hausa:-
- Mr C.R Niven (1971) cewa yayi: Hausa daga buzaye ta fito, domin sunan da ake kiran mutanen dake zaune a arewacin kogin kwara kenan.
- Farfesa Skinner (1968) cewa yayi :Hausa daga kalmar Aussa ne na mutanen songhai wadda ke nufin Arewa. Kuma yace akwai daɗaɗɗiyar alaka tsakaninsu ta yadda har hausawa sun aro kalmomi a wurinsu. A cewarsa ma kalmomin Bene da Soro duk nasu ne.
Marigayi Mal Aminu kano cewa yayi hausa daga Kalmar Habsha ne. Domin shi yana ɗaya daga masu cewa asalin hausawa mutanen habasha ne tun lokacin daya riski habashan yagano akwai kamance-ceniyar al'adu a tsakaninsu da hausawa. A cewarsa 'Habsha' ne asalin sunan, sai aka koma Habsa, sannan daga baya ya dawo Hausa.
Sarkin Ningi Marigayi Alhaji Haruna cewa yayi an samo kalmar Hausa ne daga labarin Bayajidda sa'ar daya kashe macijiya shine sai tsohuwa Ayyana ta rinka ceea 'ai wani mutum ne ya kasheta wanda ya HAU-SA' maimakon tace yahau doki...
Shin menene Ra'ayinku game da Asalin Kalmar ta Hausa???

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Hausa Ta Riga Ta Zama Harshen Kasashen Duniya

HAUSA TA RIGA TA ZAMA HARSHEN K'ASASHEN
DUNIYA.
`
(M) Abba Muhd Danhausa.
`
Bana jin wata al'umma zata samu cigaban a zo, a
gani, ba tare da ta yi rik'o da harshenta da kuma
al'adunta ba, kamar yadda Farfesa Muhammad
Hambali Jinju (1990) ya ce, "Ilmantar da matasa cikin
harshe bako, misali Faransanci ko Ingilishi, ya
kasance ɗaya daga cikin dalilan lalacewar al'adu da ci
bayan ilmi da zamowar 'yan k'asa bak'i a cikin
k'asarsu.
`
Kamata ya yi Afirkawa su gane makircin Turawa 'yan
mulkin mallaka, tsofaffi da sababbi, kuma su binciki
harsunansu na kansu da al'adunsu nagari, su ciyar da
su gaba ba tare da ɓata lokaci ba. Harshe, kowane iri
ne, yana iya ci gaba da hanzari muddin masu shi sun
tsaya, tsayin daka, sun bincike shi kuma sun kare shi.
Wajibi ne Afirkawa su ci gaba da kasancewa Afirkawa,
ba Turawa Bakar Fata ba.
`
Samuwar harshen k'asa wanda kuma shi ne harshen
mulki da koyarwa ita ce ma'aunin girma da darajar
k'asa a idanun k'asashen duniya.
`
Abin kunya ne mutanen k'asa ɗaya su kasa fahimtar
juna sai cikin Turanci kawai. Haka kuma babban abun
kunya ne shugabannin Najeriya da na Nijar su gaza
yin hira kuma su kasa yin mahawarori masu amfani
kan k'asashensu, cikin Hausa, musamman in su 'yan
Najeriya na Arewa ne. Har ila yau babban abin kunya
ne 'yan Nijar da 'yan Arewacin Najeriya, in sun sadu
da juna, su yi ta zuba Ingilishi da Faransanci wai su
"Masu ilimi" kuma "Manyan mutane" suna kiran juna
mutanen "Faransi" da na "Ingilishi". Allah wadan
naka ya lalace!
`
Wajibi ne jama'ar Jamhuriyar Nijar da Tarayyar
Najeriya su himmatu da gaske wajen ɗaga matsayin
Hausa zuwa matsayin harshen k'asa kuma na mulki
da koyarwa. Wajibi ne kuma mutanen Najeriya da na
Nijar masu basira da k'okari su haɗa kansu kuma su
shawo kan ɓatattun 'yan'uwa masu nuna son kai ko
kuwa barorin Turawa. Su yi watsi, har abada, da duk
abin da zai kawo wa Afirka bala'i.
`
Hausa ta riga ta zama harshen k'asashen duniya.
Babu makamanciyarta a Nijar da Najeriya."
`
Mu yi amfani da damarmu, kar mu yi sake dama ta yi
amfani da mu.

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