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Showing posts with label Tarihi (History). Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tarihi (History). Show all posts

TARIHIN SHAHARARREN MASANI IMAM IBN SINA


TARIHIN SHAHARARREN MASANI IMAM IBN SINA
Daga SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
08060869978
Cikakken sunan sa shine Abu Ali Al-Husayn Abdullahi Ibn sina. Yana daya daga cikin qasurguman masana a wannan duniyar, ya kuma baiwa Ilimi kachokan gudunmuwa, wanda ya hadar da ilimin addinin islama, ilimin likitanci, ilimin falsafa, ilimin lissafi da dumbin makamantansu.
An haifeshi a watan Agusta na shekar 980AD a wani gari da ake kira Afshana, wanda keda kusanci da babban birnin daular Samanidiyya mai suna Bukhara. Sunan Mahaifiyarsa Setarah, an haifeta a garin bukhara, mahaifinsa kuwa sunan sa Abdullahi, wasu na cewa shine gwamnan afshana a wancan lokaci.
Ibn sina ya tashi cikin ilimi tun yana qanqani. Haqiqa an bayyana cewa gidansu Ibn Sina matattara ce tsakanin masu bada ilimi, da masu daukar darasi. Sannan kuma shi mutum ne mai kaifin hadda. Don haka akace ya samu nasarar haddace littafin Alkur'ani maigirma tun yana dan shekaru goma kachal a duniya.
Daga nan sai ya shiga haddace litattafai na sauran fannonin ilimi. Ya haddace hadisai masu dumbin yawa. Ya kuma haddace waqoqi na hikima irin wadanda larabawa ke rerawa babu adadi. Wasu ma sunce da zarar yaji abu yake haddace shi.
An samu a tarihi cewa, Imam Ibn sina ya fara daukar darasin zama likita tun yana dan shekaru goma sha uku a duniya. Sannan kuma ya kammala haddace tulin littattafan likitancin wancan zamani yana dan shekaru goma sha shidda da haihuwa, watau shekaru uku kenan da fara daukar darasin nasa. Ilimin daya samu a wannan lokacin yasa aka sahale masa fara duba marasa lafiya daban-daban. Kenan muna iya cewa, ibn sina na daya daga cikin likitoci masu quruciya a tarihin duniya.
A wannan lokacin ana fama da yaqe-yaqe. Sarkin bukhara mai suna Nuh Ibn Mansur na fama da maqiya kala-kala, kokarin sa shine ya qarawa wannan daular tasa qarfi da fadin qasa. Ance akwai wani lokaci da bashi da lafiya, sai ya shiga neman qwararren likita. A nan ne ya samu labarin qwarewar ibn sina, nan take kuwa ya aika akazo dashi domin yayi masa magani. Da akayi sa'a kuwa, Ibn sina ya bayar da magani kuma sarki ya samu waraka. Wannan abu saiya daukaka darajar Ibn sina a yankin baki daya.
Daga cikin tagomashin daya samu shine na zamowa babban likitan sarki Nuh ibn Mansur, wanda ance daga bisani Ibn sina ya rinqa samun kudaden da yake taimakon mahaifin sa ma a wurinsa. Sannan kuma an sahale masa shiga babbar Ma'ajiyar adana litattafai ta qasar Bukhara. Wanda hakan, dai-dai yake da bashi lasisin qara fadada ilimi ta hanyar karanta manyan littattafan ilimi. Koda yake ance babu jimawa dakin adana littattafan ya qone da wuta, abinda ya janyo wasu maqiyan Ibn sina suka zargeshi da qona wajen domin wai kada asan inda yake samo ilimansa.
To. Allah dai shi yasan gaibu. Amma a kwana a tashi, sai lamura suka sauyawa ibn sina. Na farko dai mahaifinsa kuma abin qaunarsa ya rasu, na biyu kuma sojojin turkiya sun cinye daular samanidiyya da yaqi. Wannan yasa Ibn sina barin gari tare da shiga fagafniya, yau yana wancan gari, gobe yana wani. Yana zaga garuruwa yana aiwatar da sana'ar sa ta likitanci, yana kuma karantar da dalibai ilimin falsafa dana warkar da marasa lafiya.
Ance a irin haka sai daya zagaya garuruwan Ganganji, khwarazm, Rayy, Hamadan da Isfahan. A garin hamadan ne akace sarkin garin mai suna shams al Dawlah ya nada shi bafadensa kuma likitan sa, amma daga bisani aka kai masa gulmar cewa ibn sina tsohon bafaden Nuh ibn mansur ne wanda yake maqiyi ne a gareshi, sai kawai ya koreshi daga garin.
Sai dai ance Ibn sina bai bar garin hamdan ba, asali ma boyewa yayi a gidan wani mai bada magunguna saboda a lokacin yana kan ganiyar rubutun littafin kitabusshifa da qanun fid dibbi, littattafan da har yau ake amfani dasu a fannin likitanci. Babu jimawa ibn sina ya aikawa sarkin isfahan takarda, yana neman izinin zama a garinsa, sarkin da yake abokin gava ne ga Sarki Shams ad daulah na hamdan. Amma ance cikin rashin sa'a sarkin hamdan ya samu wannan labari, ya kuma samu labarin maboyar ibn sina. Don haka ya bada umarnin a kameshi a daure a kurkuku.
Allah cikin ikonsa, ibn sina bai wanzu cikin kurkukun ba akace yayi bad-da-bami da shigar sufaye, ya gudu daga kurkukun, inda ya tsallaka zuwa garin Isfahan. A wannan garin ne kuma ya samu nutsuwa tare da karimci, harma ya cigaba da rubuce-rubucen sa.
Masana tarihi sun ce Iman ibn sina ya rubuta littattafai na ilimi kimanin guda 450 a tsawon rayuwarsa. Amma guda 240 ne kachal suka kubuta, ragowar sun salwanta. Daga cikin wadanda suka tsiran kuma, ance littattafai 150 sun qunshi ilimin likitanci ne, sauran 90 din kuwa suna dauke da iliman lissafi, dabara, kimiyyar sararin samaniya, luggar larabci, falsafa, kide-kide da sauransu.
Falsafar Ibn sina jajirtatta ce wajen nunawa duniya wanzuwa da buwayar Allah madaukakin sarki. Duk da dai bayan rasuwar sa, Imam Ghazali ya nazarci littattafan falsafar tasa, ya kuma samar da ilimin falsafar sa wanda yake sabanin na ibn sina. Ance ma ko alokacin rayuwar ibn sina, ya rinqa haduwa da sabanin fahimta daga manyan malaman musulunci na lokacin, tunda ance a wajajen shekara ta 1022, ibn sina ya rinqa amsar takardun tambayoyi na qalubale daga masanin lissafi da falsafa na musulunci mai suna Imam Al-Biruni.
Amma dai, a fannin likitanci, Allah ya hore masa ilimi. Wanda takai ga bashi da tamka aduk duniya a wancan lokaci. Ance yana da matuqar hikima wajen gane cuta da warkar da maralafiya. Shine ma aka taba ruwaito wata qissa tasa mai cewa "wata rana yariman farisa bashi da lafiya, cutar damuwa ta kamashi. Har ya fita daga hankalinsa, yana fadawa mutane cewa shi saniya ne, azo da wuqa a yankashi aci nama mai dadi. Yana kuka 'mooo, mooo, mooo' kamar na shanu. Sai sarkin farisa ya aikawa Ibn sina yazo yayi masa magani. Ance tun kafin yazo ya aiko a sanar da marar lafiyar cewa Ibn sina mahauci ne, zaizo kuma da wuqa ya yanka shi, don haka ya kwantar da hankalinsa. Ai kuwa yarima dajin haka sai murna, ya shiga zaquwar isowar Ibn sina.
A ranar da ibn sina ya qaraso, sai ya zare wuqa, ya wasata a qasa, sannan ya rinqa cewa 'ina saniyar take? Ga mai yankata ya qaraso' sai ya yarima ya rinqa gurnanin shanu 'mooo, moooo, mooo' da qarfi domin ya sanar da Ibn sina inda yake kwance.
Ibn sina yana zuwa wurin yariman, sai ya taba shi sannan yace ' kai! Ai kuwa wannan saniyar bata shirya a yankata ba. Idan tana son yanka, dole sai taci abinci. Tayi qiba, ta kuma sha magani'. Cikin zumudi yarima ya rinqa karbar abinci da magani, har daga bisani hankalinsa ya dawo, lafiyarsa kuma ta inganta. (Littafin The Art of Talking cure na Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo ya tattaro wadannan hikimomi ga jami'an lafiya).
A qarshen rayuwar Ibn Sina, ance dakarun Sarkin Isfahan sun samu nasarar karbe iko da garin Hamdan, don haka ibn sina yayi niyyar koma wa garin da zama, amma sai ya hadu da matsanancin ciwon ciki, daqyar ya qarasa hamdan. Wasu sunce guba aka zuba masa a abinci, wasu kuma sun tafi akan lalura ce ta ajali.
Koma dai ya abin yake, ibn Sina yayi hasashen mutuwarsa alokacin, don haka yaqi shan magani, ya koma ga Allah. Ance abokansa sun rinqa yi masa nasiha ta yabi a sannu yayi magani, amma sai ya nusar dasu ilimin sa na ruhi, gangar jiki da mutuwa. Saboda a iya abin daya sani, ya gamsu Da cewa idan jiki yayi rauni, tilas ruhi ke barin gangar jiki don komawa ga duniyar ruhina, abinda ke sanadiyar Rasuwar dan adam. Har ma yake ce musu "Nafi qaunar gajeriyar rayuwa mai fadi akan siririyar rayuwa mai tsayi"
A qarshe dai, Ibn Sina ya rarraba dukiyar sa ga matalauta, ya 'yantar da bayinsa, sannan ya shiga tilawar Alqur'ani dare da rana, yana saukewa duk bayan kwana uku, har lokacin rasuwarsa a watan Ramadan na shekarar 1037.
Ibn Sina shahararren masani ne, mai koyarwa don Allah. Rashin sa ya jefa duniya cikin duhu, donma Allah ya taimaka ya rubuta wasu daga cikin ilimansa. Alokacin rayuwarsa, ana masa laqabi da Bu Ali sina, Sharaf Al mulk, Hujjatul Haqq da kuma Sheikul Ra'iyss.
Ga kadan daga littattafan daya rubuta;
1. Mi'iyar Al'Aaaqd Ibn sina
2. Risala fi ibtal ahkamul Nujoom
3. Hikmat Al-mashriqiyya
4. Sirat al shiykh Ra'is
5. Al isharat wa Al- Tanbihat
6. Danishnama'I Ala'I
7. Risala fi Sirril qadar
8. Kitab Al najat
9. Hayy Ibn yaqdhan
Da sausansu.
Da fatan Allah ya gafarta masa. Amin
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Tuna Baya: TARIHIN MASARAUTAR KANEM-BORNO KAMMALALLE


Tuna Baya:
TARIHIN MASARAUTAR KANEM-BORNO KAMMALALLE.
16-May-2016

Daga SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO

AGISYMBA, wani yanki ne daya fito daga bakin shahararren masanin kimiyya da falsafa dan kasar Girka mai suna Ptolemy, wanda kuma ya rayu a garin Alekzandariya a wajejen shekaru 100 bayan wafatin Annabi Isa (A.S) daga qasa zuwa sama.
A cewar ptolemy, agisymba wani gari ne dayake dauke da manyan dabbobi misalin giwaye da manyan Kangaru, tare da manya-manyan tsaunika, kuma garin yana kudu da garin Fezzan (dake libya a yanzu) da nisan tafiyar watanni hudu kacal.
Ance Ptolemy ya samu wannan labari ne daga hannun wani masanin girma da fadin duniya mai suna Manus. Shikuma Manus shine wanda tun alokacin ya bayyana cewa kusurwowin duniya guda hudu ne: Garin Thule (dake norway a yau) shine qarshen duniya a yamma, sai kuma yankin Agisymba wanda yake qarshen duniya a gabas. Sai tsibirin kanari (Cannaries) (wanda yake a qasar spain) ya zama qarshen duniya ta arewa, yayin da garin Shera (china kenan) yake a matsayin qarshen duniya ta kudu.
Shikuwa Manus, kamar yadda aka ruwaito, ya samu wannan labari ne daga bakin matafiya dake karadawa sassan duniya tare da binciken sa ga tsofaffun takardu wadanda masanan da suka gabace shi suka gabata.
Wannan gari na Agisymba, ance ya bace, ko kuma an daina jin duriyar sa har izuwa shekara ta 700 bayan wafatin Annabi Isa (A.S). Inda akace anji labarin wata masarauta mai suna KANEM- wadda akace ta kafu a wani gari da ake kira Manan, sunan zuriyar (qabilar) dake mulkinta shine DUGUWA (wadansu kuma na cewa Zhagawa), yaren da suke yarawa kuwa sunan sa KANEMBOU, yaren da ake tsammanin ya samo asali ne daga qabilar SAO. Qabilar da akace sune usulin mazauna yankin daga baya suka rarrabu izuwa al'ummatai daban-daban misalin kotoko, budumu, gamergu, da kanembou. Ita kuwa qabilar Sao, wasu na jita-jitar cewa tsatso ne na jikokin Hyksos, wani jarumi wanda ya kafa tsohuwar daular egypt daruruwan shekaru da suka gabata. Daga baya wannan masarauta ta sauya sheqa izuwa garin N'jima (ma'anar wannan suna a yaren Tedaga, (Teda, Tebu, Toubou' duk sunan yaren ne) wanda wani yanki acikin ala'ummar kudancin Fezzen ke yarawa shine 'KUDU')
Dier Lange, a littafinsa mai suna 'The founding of kanem by Assyrian Refugees ca 600BC' yayi kokari matuqa wajen wassafou fahimtarsa bisa alaqar kafuwar daular Kanem daga larabawan syria. Inda ya bayar da tarihin Sarkin masarautar na farko mai suna Sef da mahaifiyarsa Aisa wadda yace ta haife shine a garin Baghadada, daga baya rikice-rikice suka auku a masarautar wanda yasa Sef din ya jagoranci tawaga suka baro garin. Sannan kuma acewarsa, a wancan lokacin, Yankin Kanem Alqarya ce babba. Har ma ya qara da cewa littafin tarihin da mai binciken tarihi dan qasar jamus Heinrich Barth ya gano a shekarar 1851 mai suna Girgam wanda yake dauke da sunayen sarakunan kanem goma sha hudu na farko, ya samo asali ne daga kalmar 'Girginakku', wadda ake fassarata da yaren Akkadian (tsohon yaren Masarautar Syria) da "Akwatin takardu".
A fahimtar mu, wannan yanki yana dauke da mutane shekaru dubunnai da suka gabata, sai dai tarihin su ya bace tayadda bamu samu labarin yadda rayuwa takasance musu ba, kawai dai abinda tarihi ya nuna shine qabilar duguwa(zhagawa) wadanda ainihinsu makiyaya ne, sun yi shawarar tsayawa da yawace-yawacen kiwo gami da samar da gari nasu na kansu a wani lokaci wajajen shekaru 600 bayan wafatin Annabi Isa (A.S) (dai-dai da shekaru 32 kafin Annabi Muhammad S.a.w yayi wafati), don haka zuwan larabawan syria yankin wataqila shine yayi silar fito da wurin. Kuma kasancewar sunayen Sarakunan6 kanem na farko wadanda ake kira da 'magumi' ake kuma yi musu laqabi da 'mai' (ma'ana Sarki) kamar yadda yazo a kundin tarihin masarautar watau 'Girgam', yayi kamanceceniya da sunayen mutanen syria, zaifi kyau mu amince da zuwan su wannan yanki na agisymba kamar yadda tsohon sunansa yake.
Sai dai kuma akwai sabanin masana tarihi akan ainihin abinda ya faru a lokacin da Siriyawa suka qaraso wannan yanki. Shin kafa garinsu sukayi na daban, wanda daga bisani suka cinye garuruwan dake kusanci dasu da yaqi har suka maida garin daukakakke? Ko kuwa gari suka fara risqa sannan suka karbe ikon garin daga hannun masu mulkinsa?
Abinda tarihi dai ya tabbatar shine, Sarki Sef dan qabilar duguwa (zhagawa) shine sarki na farko da aka fara rubutawa a matsayin sarkin masarutar Kanem. Yayi sarautarsa a wajajen shekara ta 700, daga nan sai Ibrahim wanda ya fara mulki a shekara ta 740, sai Dugu a amshi mulki a shekarata 785 , daga nan sai Fune 835, sai Arsu a 893, sai Katur a 942, sai Buyuma a 961, sai Bulu a 1091, sai Arku a 1035, sai Shu a 1077, sai Selma (Abdal Djahl) wanda akace shine musulmi na farko, ya hau mulki a shekara ta 1081, wannan kuma shine yakawo qarshen mulkin sarakunan Duguwa (Zhagawa) akan mulkin masarautar kanem.
Domin ance a shekarar 1085 ne 'Mai Humme' ya qwace mulki, shine mafarin fara mulkin zuriyar Saifawa wadanda akewa sarakunan su laqabi da 'Mai', zuriyarda saida ta shafe kusan shekaru 700 tana tafiyar da mulkin masarautar. Ance a lokacin mulkinsa ne musulunci ya warwatsu a masarautar kanemi, aka giggina masallatai da yawa da wuraren daukar darasu. Wannan abu sai ya batawa wani yanki na tshohuwar qabilar Zhagawa rai, suka qi karbar musulunci. Daga bisani ma sai suka tashi daga garin sukayi gabas can wajajen Tafkin Chadi. Acan ne sukayi qarfi suka kuma fara kawo hari masarautar kanem. Wannan shine asalin qabilar Bulala da zhagawa kashi na biyu wadanda suka bar masarautar su ta gado, kuma shine asalin duk wata rigima data addabi wannan masarauta.
A shekarata 1210 ne Mai Dunama Dibbalemi ya amshi mulki. Shine sarkin daya fara qaddamar da yaqin jihadi don yada addinin musulunci ga sarakunan dake kewaye dashi. Sannan ya nemi kafa alaqar kasuwanci da qasashen larabawa, harma da gina Masaukin Alhazansa a garin Alqahira.
Wannan sarki ya kafa tarihi matuqa a masarautar Kanem. Domin ance shine wanda ya karya dodon tsafi mai sina 'MUNE', wanda maguzawan zhagawa ke bautawa, ya hana mutane bauta masa, sannan ya kira al'ummatai izuwa musulunci. Sai kuma shekarar 1473 inda Ali Gajideni ya amshi mulki. Shikuwa Gajideni, shine sarkin daya harhada kawunnan qabilun borno bayan yaqi ya rabasu gida biyu. Sannan ya yaqi kabilar Bulala, wadda take zuriya ce tsatson Zhagawa masu yaqi da masarautar borno. Sannan kuma shine sarkin daya dauke cibiyar masarauta daga yankin Kanem izuwa yankin Borno, ya koma wani gari mai suna Ngazargamu da mulki. Sai kuma Idris Katakarmabe ya hau mulki a shekarar 1507, wanda akace shine ya qarasa cinye qabilar Bulala da yaqi, ya koresu, tilas suka gudu gabashin borno da rayuwa har kuma ya maishe da fadar sa izuwa tsohon garin da masarautar ta kafu watau N'jemi na wucin gadi.
Abinda ya kamata makaranta su sani shine, yaqe-yaqe da hare-hare sun rinqa aukuwa daga qabilar zaghawa izuwa garuruwan masarautar kanem. Masana tarihi ma irinsu Ibn Yaqub sun ruwaito cewa a jerin wadannan Yaqe-yaqe sai da zaghawa suka kashe sarakunan kanem guda biyar daga cikin shidda wadanda suka yi mulki daga shekara ta 1386- izuwa shekarata 1400, wadanda kuma suka fito daga gidan sarautar Saifawa. Don haka awannan lokaci, yaqi ne da yayi zafi a inda qabilar 'Bulala' ta cinye garin n'jimi da yaqi, sai hakan ya tursasa qabilar sayfawa barin N'jimi dake Qasar kanem izuwa garin Ngazargamu dake qasar Borno .
Abu na gaba shine hawan Idris Alauma mulki a wajajen shakara ta 1580 (wasu sukace 1571). Wannan abu ya janyowa masarautar Borno girma da kwarjini a duniya ma baki daya. Ance wannan sarki yayi yaqoqi sama da dubu, ya kuma samu nasara a kusan yakuna dari hudu kamar yadda akace an samu tarihin yaqin sa wata tsohuwar waqa da akayi masa da kuma littafin 'Ghazawat Bornu' (yaqoqin bornu) wanda akace shugaban malaman sa mai suna Ibn Furtu ya rubuta. Ance Mai Alauma ya fadada girman masarautar borno, domin ya cinye kano a yamma, ya cinye wani yanki na garin Fezzan arewa, ya cinye Outara a yamma, ya kuma cinye garuruwan Zhagawa a gabas. Alokacin sane kuma masarautar Ottoman ta turo da wakilanta qasar borno don qarfafa danganta tsakanin masarautun biyu.
Haqiqa Sarki alouma yayi aiki matuqa ta hanyar sakewa dakarun yaqin sa fasali, inda ya samar musu da dabaru kala-kala, yasa aka giggina musu manyan jiragen ruwa na yaqi, tare da samar musu da dumbin makamai.
Daga nan kuma sunayen sarakunan borno sun qara bacewa a tarihi, har zuwa wajajen shekara ta 1780 inda akaji labarin Ahmad Alimi akan gadon sarauta, wanda akace ya runqa fuskantar hare-hare daga Fulani mabiya Usman bn Fodio. Sannan daga bisani akace dansa Dunama IX Lefiagi ne ke mulkin masarautar. A shekarar 1809 ne Muhammad Ngilerumma ya amshi mulki, wanda bai dade ba sai Muhammadul Aminu Al-Kanemi wanda yake tsatson qabilar Kanem ya amshi mulki, wanda hakan shine usulin fara mulkin Shehunnai (Sarakuna masu laqabin Shehu) har izuwa yau.
Ance usulin karbar mulkin muhammadul Amin El-Kanemi shine, Sarki Dunama ne ya gayyato shi a matsayinsa na jarumi kuma malami domin ya taimaka a cinye Fulani da yaqi. Alokacin ma har wani bafillatani mai suna mallam zaki ya jagoranci tawaga an qone babban birnin Borno mai suna Ngazargamu da yaqi. Mahaifin el-kanemi ummaru, ya kasance dan qabilar kanem ne, mahaifiyarsa kuwa balarabiyar libya ce daga qabilar Toureg, kuma ya taso ne acikin ilimi.
Don haka da yazo, sai yayi wasu tsare-tsare tare da samar da sulhu. Wannan kuma sai ya bashi farin jini, sarki Dunama ya bashi kyaututtuka gami da lambar yabo ta 'Sheikh'. Daga baya kuma al'umma suka ce sunfi sonsa ya zamo sarki. Har wasu sukace sa'ar daya zamo sarki, ya caccaki Usman dan fodio da dansa Muhammad bello a wasu takardu daya rinqa turawa sokoto, bisa yadda zasu yaqi masarautar da sama da shekaru dari takwas take kan turbar musulunci. Sannan kuma a shekarar 1814, shehun borno Muhammadu el-kanemi ya mayarda fadar borno izuwa garin kukawa.
A shekara ta 1837, bayan rasuwar Muhammadul Amin, sai dansa Ummaru ya hau karaga, daga nan aka fara kiransa da shehun borno Ummaru dan Muhammadul Amin. Yayi mulkinsa har izuwa lokacin rasuwar sa a shekara ta 1881 inda kuma qarfin masarautar ya fara raguwa, shine kuma dansa Shehun borno Bukar kuka ya amshi mulki. A wannan lokaci ance tattalin arziqin borno ya karye, tilas Bukar kuka ya sanyawa mabiyansa haraji, abinda ake kira 'Kumoreji' da yaren kanuri.
A shekara ta 1885, dan uwan Bukar kura mai suna ibrahim kura ya gajeshi. A lokacin sane kuma ya Rabeh (Rabih Az-zubair) ya dirkako wa masarautar borno da yaqi, ya kuma rinqa samun nasara akan shehun borno ibrahim kura (Hashimi), don haka shekarar 1893 dan uwan ibrahim kura mai suna kyari ya kashe shi a garin maganwa, sannan ya hau mulki. Ba ajima ba Rabeh ya kori shehu Kyari daga kukawa, ya qwace garin. Wannan yasa Kyari ya shirya don qwato garinsa, amma a rashin sa'a dayazo yaqin sai Rabeh ya cishi da yaqi harma ya kame shi. Ance kalmomin daya fada na qarshen rayuwarsa kafin Rabeh ya hallakashi sune "ku fadawa wannan wulaqantaccen bawa, idan da nine na kame shi, ba abinda zan tambayeshi, kasheshi zanyi. Dan haka ya daina mini tambayoyi, idan yana da wani abu kurum yayi..''
Bayan Rabeh ya kashe kyari a shekara ta 1894, sai Sanda Wuduroma ya karbi mulki. Shima dai bai jima ba akace wani dakare mai suna Gadum, daka cikin dakarun Rabeh ya hallaka shi a wani wuri da ake kira Wuduro. Shine sai Abubakar Garbai ya gajeshi. A shekarar 1922 ne kuma ya mutu, sai sanda kura ya gajeshi har izuwa 1937 inda sanda Kyarimi ya gajeshi har zuwa 1967, sannan Umar ibn Abubakar Garbai ya hau mulki. Shima dai a shekarata 1974 ya mutu, sai mustafa ibn Umar Garbai Alkanemi ya hau mulki wanda Allah yayiwa rasuwa a shekarar 2009. Wannan ne ya kawo hawan mulkin Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai Alkanemi wanda yake kan mulki har zuwa yau..
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DIDDIGIN ISAR HAUSAWA GWANJA DA KURMI

Diddigin Isar Hausawa Gwanja da Kurmi

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
08060869978

Da Bukar Mada
08021218337

Cinikayyar Goro wata abar tunawa ce a tarihin k'asar Hausa. Domin kuwa abisa al'ada, kowacce al'umma tana ware wani abu muhimmi mai daraja domin yin musanyar cinikayya a matsayin Haja tun kafin a samar da kudade.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa ba'a bar kasar hausa a baya ba a wannan fage, domin kuwa al'ummatan zamanin daya gabace mu sun yi riko da Bayi, Gishiri, Wuri, Azurfa, Zinare da Goro duk a bisa irin wancan matsayi na musaya a fannin cinikayya da sigar mallakar abubuwa.

Watakila, wannan ne yasa hausawa na wancan lokacin suka bazama neman wadancan abubuwa masu daraja. Tarihi ya nuna an samu garuruwa da dama da suka kafu saboda zuwan mutane hak'ar zinare a yankunan, haka kuma labarin yadda hausawa ke tafiya fataucin bayi, gishiri duk sananne ne izuwa duk inda suka san zasu samu kayayyakin. A irin haka muke kyautata tsammanin bahaushe ya fara riskar yankunan da ake noman goro domin fataucinsa a nasa yankin.
Duk da kasancewar babu takaimaimen lokacin da bahaushe ya fara zuwa wancan wuri, ko kuma sunan bahaushen daya fara dillancin goro, amma dai sanannen abu ne cewa turbar kasuwanci ta kafu a wuraren k'arni na takwas tsakanin garin Gwanja inda ake noman goro izuwa hamshak'iyar masarautar Kanem dake Borno.

Marubucin littafin Kitab Al-buldan mai suna Al'yaqubi bayan yawace-yawacen sa dayayi a kusa da wannan yankin, ya ruwaito a shekarar 872-873 cewa "akwai wata masarauta awani wuri dake tsakanin masarautar kanem da tafkin kwara (dai-dai da ko kuma kusa da inda kano take a yanzu), mai suna 'HBSH'. Sunan mai mulkinta 'MRH' sunan birnin ta 'ThBYR'. zuwa yanzu, da yawan masana sunfi gaskata cewar hausawa Al-Yakubi yake nufi a matsayin mazauna yankin.
Shi kuwa Goro, cinsa akeyi.

 Kasancewar sa abu mai daraja na wancan lokacin, an jiyo canfe-canfe da dama akansa. Wasu ma na ganin cewar mahalicci ya zabe shi ne sama da sauran 'ya'yan itaciya, don haka... 

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ASALIN KALMAR NAMASTE

Kalmar namaste, ta samo asakine misalin shekaru dubu hudu (4,000 years) da suka gabata, locacin da shrishri Ram yake Dan yaro ( Shshri Krishna).

Watarana Shshri Krishna yaje yawo gona sai yaga wasu yan mata yan misalin shekaru takwas takwas suna wanka a rafi, ganin haka sai ya kwashe kayansu gaba daya ya hau saman bishiya yana kallon su. Koda gama wankan su a rafi keda wuya suka nema kayan sawansu suka rasa, hakan yasa Shshri Krrishna yayi musu fito cewa ga kayan nasu awajanshi kuma bazai basuba sai sunyi mai bauta ta musamman.

Hakan yasa wayannan yara suka fara faduwa kasa suna hada hanna yansu suna cewa " nima nima namaste " ma'ana muntuba muna masu yima mubaya'a (bauta) a gareka. 

Tundaga wannan lokacin wannan kalmar tasamo asali a India, wacce har yanzu suna anfani da ita wajan bauta mai.
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BINCIKE A LUPUR

BINCIKE A LUPUR, TSOFFIN TSAUNIKAN DA MAGUZAWA SUKA TAƁA KAFA DAULA.
DAGA
SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Lupur, wani ɗan ƙauye ne dake daura da sabon garin Rano, koda yake ana iya cewa manyan tsaunikan nan masu tarihi ne suka raba ƙauyen da garin na Rano, watau duwatsun Ƙurƙubu, Ƙurgum, Damusu, da Mairamu.
Manyan ababen ƙayatarwa a ƙauyen sune duwatsun Jidal da kuma Tsiriri dake can ƙurya dashi, dukkaninsu kuwa suna da tsohon tarihi.
Don haka sai na yanke shawarar ziyartar gani da ido zuwa garin.
Kafin zuwana, na saurari labaru kala-kala game da waɗancan tsaunika. Daga ciki akwai masu cewa Fadar sarakunan farko na maguzawa na cikin tsaunikan Lupur ne, akwai koguna masu duhu da kuma ababen tsoratarwa aciki.
Ibrahim Haladu, shine matashin daya amince yayi mini rakiya zuwa cikin surƙuƙin waɗannan duwatsu. Haka kuma mahaifinsa Mallam Haladu tsoho ne, masanin tarihin wannan yanki, wanda har Maimartaba Sarkin Rano kan aiko mutane gareshi domin jin abinda ya sani game da tarihin tsohuwar Rano.
Bayan mun gusa nesa da gari, sai gamu daf da sashen ganuwa ginin dutse, wajen ya zama gomaki amma dai ana iya ganin ɓurɓushin duwatsu da akayi alamomi dasu tun abaya, muna tsallakata kuwa sai yace mini yanzu mun shigo asalin garin daya fara kafuwa kafin komawa Rano.
Wurin kewaye yake da manyan tsaunikan can dana faɗa a sama, watau Ƙurƙubu, Mairamu, Ƙurgum, Damusu, da wasunsu, amma Jidal da Tsiriri na can ciki.
A saman waɗannan duwatsun na hango birrai farare suna ta kaikawo, shigen jikinsu yaso yayi kama dana kyanwa. Ɗan rakiya ta yace mini sun fito shan ɗorawa ne, kuma sun saba ganinsu suna fitowa gungu-gungu. Wani sa'ilin ma har ƙasa suke saukowa takalar faɗa.
Ibrahim ya nuna mini gonakinsu a ƙasan waɗannan duwatsu, kuma ya sanar mini cewa birrai na zuwa suyi musu ɓarna lokaci zuwa lokaci.
Da muka yi gaba daga nan, akwai wani sashen gini da aka nuna mini na duwatsu. Wajen ance tsohuwar fada ce, mai ɗauke da zauruka da manyan ɗakuna, har ma da inda ake zama don yin fadanci.
Ban samu labarin sunayen sarakunan da sukayi mulki acikin wannan fada ba, amma dai ance mini wannan waje ya girmewa tsohon garin Rano dake can tsallaken duwatsun, inda shima ake iya ganin sashen gini na ƙasa da sarakunan zamanin suka rayu a ciki.
Sai dai kuma ana tsammanin sai da wayewa ta zowa waɗannan maguzawa sannan suka sauko daga kan tsaunika tare da soma yin bukkoki a dandamarin ƙasa. A zamanin ance Sarki kaɗai ake ginawa gida da duwatsu.
Babu kuma takamaimen bayani game da hanyar zaɓen shugaba a wancan tsohon zamani, amma dai kamar yadda aka sani, bata wuce gado ko kuma fin ƙarfi.
Daga can ƙurya kuma akwai sashen ƙofofin shiga gari masu suna ƙofar Ƙahu da Ƙofar Bezo, ance mutanen da suka zauna a wurin sun samar dasu ne domin sanya ƙarin tsaro kafin a riski inda suke.
Baya da nan kuma sai wani babban dandali, inda aka asanar mini cewa ainihin wajen matattara ce, kasancewar akwai mutane zazzaune a kusan kafatanin tsaunikan, don haka suna samun lokacin da suke haɗuwa don yin bautar gumakansu misalin gunki Darmo, har ma da yin wasanni.
Daga wasannanin da akace suna yi baya da kaɗe-kaɗe da raye raye irin na maguzanci, akwai wasan Ƙwado da ayanzu akafi sanin mata dashi. Don haka har yanzu ana iya ganin wani dutse da suka ƙwaƙule, suka yi masa ramuka kamar tandarun waina, wanda suke wasan ƙwado a kanshi.
Ance wani sarkin Rano ya taɓa zuwa ya umarci a haƙe shi a mayar dashi inda masarautarsa take, amma duk tsawon haƙan da akayi sai dai aga dutsen na ƙara zurfi, daga ƙarshe sai aka haƙura ba tare da angano cibiyarsa ba.
A gefe ɗaya kuma akwai tsaunikan Tsiriri da Jidal waɗanda ana iya cewa sune sukayiwa wannan farfajiya ƙawanya.
Shi tsaunin Tsiriri anan ne kogo yake, watau inda Zamna Kogo ya samo asali, inda akace anan ainihin maguzawan suka rinƙa zama tare da iyalansu.
Na samu hawa saman tsaunin tare da shiga kogon, na ganshi da faɗi, da kuma duwatsun zama barbaje a ciki, harda wani faffaɗa da akace anan shugabansu yake. Sai kuma wasu lunguna da suke sadarwa izuwa gareshi..
Akwai kuma wata rijiya mai suna Kurfafiya a saman tsaunin wadda ruwa mai haske yake tsatsowa daga tsakankanin duwatsu, wadda kuma akace tarihi ya nuna cewar daga gareta mazauna duwatsun ke samun ruwansha, haka kuma bata taɓa ƙafewa ba.
Ance maguzawan da suka rayu a wajen basa sanya tufafi, sai dai su rufe tsiraicinsu da ganyaye.
Haka kuma farautar namun daji ce babbar sana'ar su, gasu karfafa, don haka suna yawan fita yaƙi ga maƙwabtan birane, suma kuma ana yawan kawo yaƙi izuwa garesu.
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TUNAWA DA YAƘIN SANTOLO

TUNAWA DA YAKIN SANTOLO
(YAKI DON TABBATAR DA MUSULUNCI A KASAR HAUSA)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Hakika, idan har Tarihin kasar hausa bazai cika ba sai an kalli tarihin kano, to haka ma tarihin kano da zuwan musulunci kano bazai taɓa kammaluwa ba har sai an sanya wani yanki na Santolo.
Santolo tsohuwar daular hausawa ce, tsohuwar masarauta ce wadda salsalar ta take tukewa da salsalar asalin hausawa.
A cikin zantuka masu yawa na maruwaitan tarihin kano, an gamsu cewar wani mai suna 'Dala' shine wanda ya soma zama akan dutsen da ayau ake kira dutsen Dala, a wajajen shekara ta 700 miladiyya, tun a wancan lokacin kuma wasu na ganin akwai mutane dake rayuwa a gefa da kuma kan wani dutse mai suna 'santolo', wanda kuma da alama, sunan ya samo asali ne daga mutumin daya soma rayuwa a saman dutsen.
Zuwa yanzu, babu takamaimen tarihin asalin kafuwar santolo, sannan kuma yana da wuya a iya lissafa tsawon zamanin da mutane suka soma rayuwa akan dutsen santolo, to amma tarihi ya auna cewar mazauna Santolo dana Dala dake kano suna da alaka kodai ta jinsi, ko ta addini ko kuma ta duka gaba ɗaya, tunda har ma an samu cewa acan baya alakar kasuwanci na shiga tsakanin mazauna waɗannan duwatsu biyu. Wasu kuma na ganin Santolo tayi shaharar da har daga Borno ake zuwa yin fatauci a koma, to amma daga baya sai Allah ya fifita Dala sama da ita Santolon.
Babban abin tunawa dangane da Santolo shine 'Yakin Santolo' wanda aka gwabza tsakanin Sarkin Kano Ali Yaji ɗan Tsamiya da kuma shugaban Santolo mai lak'abin 'Magajin Santolo' wanda ya karɓi bakuncin takwaransa 'magajin Dala' bayan sarki Ali ya karya tsumburbura dake saman dutsen dala ya kuma kori Magajin Dala da mutanensa.
Tarihi ya nuna cewa asalin garin Kano ya faro ne daga dutsen dala, inda ake bautar gunkin wata aljanna mai suna 'tsumburbura' dake saman dutsen, amma daga baya maɗatai ta kafu, har Bagauda yazo ya soma sarautar ɗaukacin yankunan maɗatai dana yankin dala, waɗanda suka haɗe da sunan kano.
Haka kuma, tsawon zamani a kano babu addinin musulunci, daga masu bautar tsunburbura karkashin ikon magajin dala (wanda yayi gadon Barbushe) sai kuma maguzawa waɗanda basa bautar komai irinsu Bagauda da salsalarsa dake sarautar kano.
A haka kano ta taho har akazo kan mulkin Sarki Ali yaji ɗan Tsamiya a wuraren shekara ta 1300-1380 miladiyya, wanda ya karɓi bakuncin kabilar fulani Wangarawa daga Kasar Mali, waɗanda suka kawo musulunci garin kamar yadda Marigayi Maje Ahmad Gwangwazo ya faɗa a littafinsa na tarihin kano da tarihin zuwan wangarawa birnin.
To, bayan sarki Ali Yaji ya karɓi addinin musulunci, sai kuma ya jagoranci karya gunkin tsunburbura tare da umartar masu bauta masa su dawo musulunci, amma sai sukace sam-sam ba zasu bar addinin kaka-da-kakan-nin suba suyi addinin dungure, don haka sai suka gudu izuwa Santolo domin cigaba da bautar da suka saba.
Wannan ne yasa sarki Ali Yaji ya shirya dakaru kimanin dubu bisa dawakai, ɗauke da takubba da kuma garkuwa ta bakin karfe, tare da gudunmiwar wangarawa suma kimanin ɗari biyu, suka dirarwa Santolo da yaki.
Watakila, Sarki Ali ya shirya wannan yakin ne domin ya samu labarin cewa Magajin Dala da Mutanen santolo zasu zo su yakeshi, ko kuma tana iya yiwuwa yayi ne kurum da niyyar hana bautar gumaka tare da tabbatar da addinin musulunci a sassan kano.
Amma dai ance a lokacin, sai mutanen santolo suka ɗare bisa dutsen na Santolo, suka rinka sakarwa dakarun Sarki Ali Yaji kibbau, har takai sun hana su kusantar dutsen.
To amma daga bksani, Sarki Yaji da dajarunsa sun samu galabar hawa kan dutsen tare da karkashe dakarun Santolo, ciki kuwa harda shugabansu Magajin Santolo.
Babu takamaimen bayanin ko magajin dala ya mutu a yakin ko kuma guduwa yayi daga baya ya mutu, to amma dai an samu cewar tun daga lokacin ya zamo musulunci ya samu karɓuwa a yankin, kuma tun daga nan ba a k'ara samun wasu mutane da suka yi bautar wani abu ba Allah ba akan wannan dutsen.
Dutsen Santolo gagarumi ne, faffaɗa da doro, tsayinsa ya tafi kamar hawan bene daga baya, daga gabansa kuwa goshi yayi mai faɗi da santsi, tsakiyarsa nada faɗi harma akwai koguna da akace dabbonin daji misalin su kyarkeci, dila da macizai ke rayuwa.
Koda yake, bamuji sunan gunki da aljanar dake saman dutsen santolo ba, amma har yanzu mutanen dake zagaye da wurin sun kiyaye cewar kakanninsu sun basu labarin cewar a zamanin da, ana taruwa ahau kan wannan dutse don neman wata biyan bukata.
Sannan kuma akwai wata rijiya zuzzurfa dake saman dutsen mai suna 'Rijiyar Giɗaɗo', wadda akan hana mutane zuwa kusa da ita saboda kuɓuta daga k'wank'waman dake wurin masu halaka mutane.
Zuwa yanzu garin santolo ya kasu biyu, akwai sabon garin santolo wanda kanawa (kabilar hausawa) ke ciki, sai kuma santolon fulani, amma dukkan su suna karkashin ikon dagaci mai suna Santolo Da'u.
Haka kuma dutsen yana nan a tskiyar kauyukan sabon garin santolo, santolon fulani, Madawa, Koɗe, kyarmawa, da Tsakuwa waɗanda dukkanin su suke cikin gundumar Dawakin Kudu ta Jihar Kano.
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Today In History


On This Day March9

1776 – The Wealth of Nations by Scottish political economist Adam Smith (bust pictured) was first published, becoming the first modern work in the field of economics.

1862 – American Civil War: In the world's first battle between two ironclad warships, USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fought to a draw near the mouth of Hampton Roads in Virginia.

1932 – Éamon de Valera, one of the dominant political figures in 20th-century Ireland, became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State.

1944 – World War II: As part of the Battle of Narva, the Soviet Air Forces heavily bombed Tallinn, Estonia, killing up to 800 people, mostly civilians.

2010 – The first legal U.S. same-sex marriages south of the Mason–Dixon line took place in Washington, D.C.



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YADDA TURAWA SUKA Ƙwace Sokoto

YADDA TURAWA SUKA KWACE SOKOTO
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo, RN.


Turawa sun riski Arewa a zamnin Sarki Musulmi Abdurrahman ɗan Atiku.
Shikuwa Anyi masa mubaya'ar sarauta a gidan waziri Buhari ne bayan rasuwar Sarkin musulmi Ummaru, sannan ya taso daga Kauran Namoda ya nufi sokoto.
Akan hanyarsa ya sauka a Gora, ya aika cewar Sarkin Mafara yazo gareshi, sarkin mafara yace bazai iya zuwa ba saboda rashin lafiya, amma ga galadima nan ya amsa mubaya'a..
Sarkin musulmi yace baya amsar mubaya'ar galadima, sarkin yakeso yazo da kansa, amma sai sarkin Mafara yaki yaje.
Rannan bayan sarkin Musulmi Abdurrahman ya isa gida Sokoto, sai aka sake aikewa sarkin musulmi da cewar husuma ta auku tsakanin sarkin Mafara dana Burmi, har sarkin mafara ya kame Birnin Tudu dake ikon sarkin Burmi.
Sarkin musulmi ya aike zuwa Mafara cewa ya saki wannan gari indai ya tabbatar Birnin Tudu na sarkin Burmi ne, idan kuwa ba nashi bane to ya aiko da jawabi mai daɗi gareshi.
Sarkin Mafara ya aiko da cewar Birnin Tudu ba na sarkin Burmi bane, na Namai-barau ne, shikuwa nasa ne. Yanzu kuma Ibo ke ikon ta, shima kuma nasa ne.
Sarkin musulmi ya aike ga waɗannan sarakunan da cewa suyi sulhu a tsakanin su, amma sai sarkin Mafara yaki ya karɓi sulhu.
Sarkin musulmi ya aike da sako Mafara cewar matsawar sarkinsu bai karɓi sulhu ba, to yaki na zuwa daga gareshi.. Mutanen Sarkin Mafara suka haɗu da jakadan sarkin musulmi a wani wuri mai suna Rini suka harbeshi da kibiya, sannan sukace sun ɗauki faɗa da sarkin musulmi.
Sarkin musulmi ya aikewa Sarkin Anka wannan abu, amma shima sai aka tarar yana goyon bayan Sarkin Mafara ne.
Daga nan kuwa sai sarkin musulmi ya hori a buga tamburan yaki, yace mutanen Anka da Mafara sun zama abokan gaba, sannan ya aike da sarkin zamfara Ummaru ɗan Mahmudu gabas, yace ya rinka aikewa da hari mafara.
Ya kuma hori Sarkin Rafi Alhaji daya zauna a Magami ya kuntatawa mutanen muradun da hsre-hare.
Sannan ya aike jarumai domin su zauna tare da sarkin Burmi a Modocci don maganin harin da abokan adawa zasu iya kawowa.
Haka kuma ya umarci sarkin Sulluɓawa shuni daya rinka kai hare-hare ga Anka da Mafara babu sassautawa.
Yace da Magajin gari ya tafi Maru ya tara jarumai su tafi sukai hari ga Mafara.
Ya umarci sarkin Danko Ali yazo su haɗu a Laje don su kaiwa abokan adawa hari.
Da sarkin Mafara yaga haka, sai ya aike wa sarkin Gobir neman taimako. Sarkin Gobir Almu ya tashi da gagarumar runduna zuwa Mafara, suka tafi ga sarkin Burmi suka buka yaki har sau uku ana gwabzawa amma basu samu gagarumar nasara ba, anan nema aka halaka Bawa ɗan sarkin Mafara.
Daga nan sai sarkin musulmi ya aiki jarumai su tsare wababe, sannan yahau zuwa Mafara da yaki, ya buga yaki dasu da fari sannan ya koma gida.
Bayan ya komo gida sai mutanen Mafara suka saduda, suka aiko neman sulhu saboda kuntatar da akayi musu.
Sarkin musulmi yaki amsa musu, ya cigaba da shirin yaki abinsa.
Amma da suka matsu sai suka kori sarkinsu Buzu, suka aika da rawaninsa ga sarkin Burmi domin ya nemar musu sulhu da sarkin muslmi.
Da sarkin musulmi yaji abinda sukayi, sai yace indai da gaske ne suna son sulhu, to sai sabon sarkin da suka zaɓa ya zo gareshi.
Daga nan Sabon sarkin Mafara da sarkin zamfaran Anka suka taso izuwa ga sarkin musulmi suna masu neman amana, suka haɗu dashi a Gandi, yace su saki duk bayin da suka kama a yayin wannan rikici, sukace sunji zasuyi yadda duk yace.
Yace kuma bai yadda da amanar suba har sai sun bashi bayi dubu.
Sai da suka bashi kuwa sannan ya aminta dasu.
Sannan yace ya mayarwa sarkin Burmi birnin Tudu, suka ce sun yadda,.
Ya hori sarkin mafara da jama'ar sa duk su daina al'adar nan tasu ta ahi( atire) da aka sansu da ita, ya rarraba yankuna kuma ga sarakunanda suka taimakeshi a wannan yaki.
Ya baiwa Alhaji Maradun, ya raba wasu yankuna tsakanin sarkin Mafara Laje da Sarkin Danko Ali.
Bayan duk an kare wannan, sai ya shirya zuwa Argungu da yaki, yaje ya kai mata hari ya dawo gida.
Bayan ya dawo ya kai yaki Ruwan Bore ya kame waɗanda ke ciki, sannan ya sake shiryawa zuwa Argungu a kashi na biyu.
Bayan ya dawo dai, ya sake kaiwa Ruwan Bore da Argurgu hari a karo na uku.
Daga nan sai yaron turawa mai suna Adamu yazo masa. Yazo tare da yaron sarkin zazzau, da gaisuwa da hajoji da suka saba aikawa ga sarkin musulmi. Sarkin musulmi yaki amsar gaisuwarsu ya kuma koresu.
Daga baya sai aka shirya gyara da turawa, sarkin musulmi yaci gaba da karɓar gaisuwarsu.. Ana kan haka kuma sai ƙlabari yazo cewa turawa sun kone Nufe, sun cinyeta da yaki..
Koda sarkin musulmi yaji haka sai ya daina amsar gaisuwarsu. Amma kuma labarin ciye-ciyen garuruwa daga turawa ya zamo yanata karuwa a kullum.
A haka har sukaci Bauchi, sarkin Bauchi ya gudo zuwa kano.
Rannan bayan an kare Basasar Kano lokacin da waziri ya sauka a zariya sai kwatsam ga turawa sun dira da rundunar su ta yaki, suka ce sai a saki bayi duka, aka sakesu.
Suka tsare waziri a zazzau.
Suka sa dogarai biyu a kowacce kofa, amma akwai wata kofar da waziri ya sulale ya bar zazzau zuwa kano da ba susan da itaba, daga kano ya komo sokoto abinsa.
Sai Ya zamana zazzau ta fita daga ikon sarkin musulmi.
Sannan Gwamna Lugga ya aiko da wasika zuwa ga sarkin musulmi da Cewa:-
Bayan gaisuwa, Ka sani, idan shekara ta kewayo, zamu zo gareka, idan kana wurno zamu sauka a sokoto, idan kana sokoto kuwa zamu sauka a cikinta.
Sai sarkin musulmi ya juya takardar tasu ya maida jawabi da cewa
"La Haula Wala kuwwati Illa Billahi"
Ya aike musu dashi.
Sai dai bayan watanni 6 sai Allah yayi masa rasuwa, yana da shekaru 75 a duniya, yana kuma da shekaru 12 bisa mulki.
Kabarinsa na nan a Wurno.
Haka kuma Azamaninsa akayi basasar kano. Kuma a zamaninsa turawan Faransa suka kone Salame da dare, mutane suka firgita matuka.
Da fatan Allah yajikansa Amin.
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TARIHIN WALI ƊAN MASANI

TARIHIN WALI DAN MASANI
Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo, RN.
Sunan sa na yanka shine Abduljalil, amma anyi saɓani akan cikakken sunansa da kuma asalinsa.
A wani aulin ance shine Muhammadu ɗan Abdullahi ɗan Nuhu, babar-bare ga asali, bakatsine ga haihuwa. Shine shehun malami mai yawan sani, masanin furu'a, masanin nahawu, masanin lugga da balaga, uban Abdullahi.
Amma a wani aulin ance mahaifinsa Mallam Masani mutumin kasar Masar ne, larabawan futa-turo ne suka karɓo shi daga hannun mahaifinsa wanda yake wani babban malami ne acan masar ɗin suka zo dashi katsina. Su waɗannan larabawa, sun kasance idan zasu zo kasar Hausa fatauci daga masar, sai uban ɗan masani ya basu sa'a.
To shi wannan yaro ɗa ga Mallam masani shine ya shahara kwarai a katsina, kan sha'anin malanta har ya zamo mai ba sarkin katsina sa'a idan zai tafi yaki.
Ance wali ɗan Masani ya karantar da mutane ilimi sosai a Birnin katsina, ya rayu a karni na goma sha shidda, shine kuma akace ya raini shahararren masani Wali ɗan Marina wanda har daga baya akace jayayya ta ilimi ta taɓa wanzuwa a tsakaninsu.
Wali ɗan Masani ya rubuta wakokin Hausa da dama, dayawansu sun ɓace saboda rashin taskancewa tun tsawon zamani daya shuɗe, amma wadda aka samu a yanzu kuma ake kyautata zaton shiya rubutata itace wakar 'Yakin Badar', wadda akace a baya ta shahara a kano, inda manya da yara ke rerawa kwararo-kwararo.
Ita wakar tana magana ne akan yakin Badar wanda yake ɗaya daga yakokin da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) sukayi da sahabbansa domin tabbatuwar wannan addinin na musulunci.
Don haka, wakar tana bayyana yadda akayi gwagwarmaya da kafiran makkah a karkashin jagorancin Abu Safiyan da yadda musulmai 313 dake kafa, da guda 2 mahaya dawakai, da guda 70 mahaya rakuma sukayi nasara akan kafirai sama da 1000.
Har ila yau, Ita wakar tana sharhi ne akan abubuwan da suka faru game da yakin Badar ɗin. Ko da yake wasu abubuwan da aka ambata a yakin uhudu ne akayisu.
Wakar duka-dukanta baitoci 48 ne, 11 na farko suna nuna yabo ne ga Manzon Allah tsira da aminci su tabbata a gareshi wanda yazo da littafin Alkurani mai girma.
Sai kuma baitocin da suka biyo baya masu nuni da yadda rashin jituwa ya soma biyo baya tsakanin musulmai da kafiran makkah da yadda Abu Jahali ya aiki Siraka filin daga a inda ya tarar da mu'ujuzozin Annabi Muhammad (s.a.w.)
Ga kaɗan daga wannan wakar:-
1. Bismillahi Sunane na Allah Ta'ala,
Zani yabon Rasulullah, macecin mu bayi.
2. Nai haramar yabo da yawa, na duba da zurfi,
Gulbin mai ruwa tari, fito sai da jirgi.
3. Zani yabonka Gamzaki da kazo da haske,
Hasken naka nada yawa yana shafe rana.
11. Mutan Makkah sun murna da saukar fiyayye,
Amma sai da anka kara, takubba da masu.
12. Wani wawa Abu jahil dake basu karya,
Yace koway je wurin wan'in shina bashi 'yatai.
13. Anga Siraka yai gama da bai kai isa ba,
Ya kai goɗiya ta kafe wurin babu ramu.
15. Yai kara yai kuwwa yana "Ya fiyayye"
Annabi yaji kukanai, "kaje, babu komai"

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BRIEF HISTORY OF NIGERIA

*BRIEF HISTORY OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA 🔰*

1. *1960-1966:* 
       Sir Abubakar Tafawa 
       Balewa- no public  
       funds stolen.

2. *1966*
       Major Gen. Aguyi
       Ironsi- no public 
       funds stolen.

3. *1966-1975:*
      Gen. Yakubu Gowon-
      little stealing of
      public funds began
      gradually.

4. *1975-1976:*
      Gen. Murtala    
      Muhammad- zero
      tolerance for
      corruption and
       indiscipline.

5. *1976-1979:*
      Gen. Olusegun  
      Obasanjo- Military
      egg heads started
      owning huge
      properties, oil Blocs
      running into Millions
      of dollars.

6. *1979-1983:*
      Alhaji Shehu Shagari-
      looting galore by
      Ministers, party
      functionaries and
      other government big
      wigs.

7. *1984-1985:*
      Major Gen.
      Muhammadu Buhari-
      zero tolerance for
      corruption and
      indiscipline.
      Some corrupt
      politicians bagged
      200 years jail terms.

8. *1985-1993:*
      Gen Ibrahim
      Babangida- freed all
      jailed politicians;
      liberalized the
      architecture.
      In one fell swoop
      about $12 Billion
      varnished.
      He is called the father
      of corruption.

9. *1993-1998:*
      Gen. Sani Abacha-
      over $25 Billion
       looted in four
       turbulent years.

10. *1998- 1999:*
        Gen. Abdulsalam
        Abubakar- about $2
        Billion looted in 11
        months.

11. *1999- 2007:*
        Chief Olusegun
        Obasanjo- His Bank
        account is said to
        have grown from
        N20,000 after
        leaving prison to
       Multi-Billion dollars
       with choice
       properties across
       major cities. $16
       Billion allegedly
       meant for electric
       power projects
       vanished. Another
       N300 Billion [$2b] for
       roads disappeared.

12. *2007-2010:*
        Alhaji Umar
        Yar'Adua- reserved
        and sick. Looted
        funds have not been
        traced to his regime.

13. *2011-2015:*
        Dr. Goodluck Ebelle
       Jonathan- in 2011
       elections about N2.6
       Trillion disappeared.

       Over $31Billion
       stolen in 2yrs.

       Another $2.6 Billion
       was stolen in 2015
       elections.

      More revelations on
      stolen public funds
      during his tenure are
      still emerging.

      His regime in terms
      of corruption cannot
      be described in
      words.

14. *2015 - date.* PMB.  
         Integrity, Zero
         tolerance for
         corruption, recovery
         of looted funds....

         This is why the
         enemies of the
         nation hate him.    
         Who is he to take
         away their rightful
         yams?

         May we never have
         Goats in charge of
         our yams again.

         It is well with
         Nigeria.

         Please give it wide
         publicity till it gets
         to them directly or
         indirectly.

© Citizens Against Yam 
       Eaters Publication.

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TARIHIN TSOFFIN BIRANEN HAUSA: BAƊARI DA GOƊIYA


Tarihin Tsoffin Biranen Hausa: Baɗari da Goɗiya.

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwazo
08060869978

A mafi ingancin zance, maguzawa ne suka fara kafa garuruwa a kasar hausa. Muna iya cewa ma sune asalin hausawa. Amma dai, bari kuji abinda muka samu daga tarihin waɗannan tsoffin garuruwa guda biyu.
Garin Baɗari.
Wannan gari yana da tsohon tarihi. Ya kamata kuma a sanyashi a sahun tsoffin biranen hausawa.
Tarihi ya nuna cewa, wani bamaguje mai suna Bugau shine wanda ya kafa wannan tsohon gari shekaru da dama da suka gabata. Ance garin ya riganyi Garuruwan Goɗiya dana Kano da kafuwa. Tsiransu da kano shekaru takwas ne, domin kuwa shi Bagauda daya kafa kano ance ai kanine ga Bugau.
Zuwa yanzu dai babu takamaimen tarihin daga inda Bugau da kaninsa Bagauda suka taho, babu labarin kabilar su kuma ko na iyayensu, amma dai labari ya nuna cewa su biyun duk 'yanuwan juna ne, kuma da hausa suke magana, tana iya yiwuwa ma Bagauda ya zauna a Baɗari kafin daga bisani ya tashi ya riski kano kuma har ya sareta ta zama gari.
Garin Baɗari daɗaɗɗe ne wanda za'a iya cewa ya kai kimanin shekaru dubu ɗaya da hamsin da kafuwa. Garin ya shahara a zamanin-da wajen sana'ar rini da bugu ta yadda har yanzu shashin shahararriyar karofin garin yananan. Sannan kuma alkarya ce a baya inda baki ke zuwa daga sassa mabanbanta.
Kasancewar mutanen garin sun bar tsohon garin izuwa sabo shekaru kimanin sittin da ɗaya da suka gabata, amma har zuwa yau akwai shacin ganuwa bai dusashe ba wanda ke nuna cewar garin yasha gwagwarmayar yaki acan baya. Sannan akwai shashin babbar fadar masarautar wadda akayi da ginin marmara, sai kuma shacin wata tsohuwar rijiya mai suna Fafagu shima yana nan har yau bai dusashe ba.
Bama iya nan ba, har yanzu ana iya shaida kushewar wani Mutum mai suna Garega a tsohon garin. Shidai Garega ance Bamaguje ne, daga kano yayi laifi aka koro shi. Dan haka dayayi yamma da kano da tafiya mai nisa sai ya riski Baɗari, sai kuwa ya zauna a garin har ajali ya sameshi. Bayan an binneshi a kushewa ne sai bishiyar Lalle tafito a saman kabarin nasa, wannan yasa wajen ya zama abin nuni gakowa. Kuma Koda yake zuwa yanzu an sare wancan lalle, amman dai an samu cewa kafin a sare shi idan mata sunyi kunshi da lallen baya kamawa.
Ance Fulani sunzo garin ne lokacin Jihadin Shehu Usmanu ɗan Fodio. Ga kuma yadda abin ya faru kamar yadda muka ji.
Akace akwai wani fulanin mutum Basulluɓe dake zaune a Adamawa mai suna Muhammadu Kigudu (ana kiransa Kigu) da sukayi rigimar sarauta a garinsu, sai bai samu wannan sarautar ba. Wannan tasa yayi fushi tare da tasowa dashi da wansa mai suna Gabbu, da dabbobinsu da kuma bayinsu izuwa sokoto wajen shehu Usmanu. Sun zauna da shehu babu jimawa sai aka basu shugabanci, inda shi Muhammadu Kigudu yazo ya zauna a garin Guɗe a matsayin shugaba, shikuma Gabbu ya zauna a garin Gwarzo a matsayin shugaba.
Daga bisani sai Kigudu ya dawo Baɗari da mulki. Ana kiran sarautar 'ɗan Badari'.
Bayan rasuwar sa kuma sai ɗansa Yusuf yayi sarauta. Shima bayan yarasu sai kuma aka danka sarauta a hannun wani mutum bafulatani jinsin Ruma dake kasar Katsina. Jikan wannan mutumi mai suna Abdullahi shine wanda ya ɗauke tsohon garin izuwa inda yake har zuwa yanzu, sai daga baya ne aka samu an maidowa da jinin Muhammadu Kigudu mulkin garin.
Abu ɗaya da zamu iya cewa yayi saura wanda kuma za'a iya tunawa dashi a tsohon garin Badari shine Tambari. Wanda akace yanzu haka yana masarautar getso sanadiyyar 'yar sarkin Baɗari da wani sarkin Getso ya taɓa aura, sai kuwaƴ ta tafi dashi izuwa can don a rinka kaɗa mata shi...
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KOKAWA: TARIHI DA TASIRI


KOKAWA: TARIHI DA TASIRI
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Kokawa ba kurum wasa bane, al'ada ce da mutum yayo gado shekara da shekaru.
Wani masani Kendall Blanchard ya kalli kokawa a matsayin daɗaɗɗen wasa acikin abinda ya rubuta a littafinsa mai suna 'The Anthropology of sports: An Introduction' saboda duba da yadda yace mutanen farko sun rinka zana hotunan masu kokawa a jikin kogunan duwatsu da kuma tarin mutane suna kewaye dasu suna kallo.
Amma dai mafi yawan masana kimiyyar salsalar ɗan adam suna kallon kokawa a matsayin daɗaɗɗen abu wadda ake amfani da ita wajen gane jarumi a tsakanin mazaje ba kurum a matsayin wasa ba.
Zuwa yanzu, yana da wuya a iya faɗar inda aka soma kokawa, ko kuma waɗanda suka soma yinta. Amma dai, idan muka kalli abin ta fuskar addinai, muna iya hasashen cewa 'ya'yayen Annabi Adamu watau Habila da Kabila ne suka soma karawa a junansu bisa saɓanin fahimta daya shiga tsakaninsu. Har daga bisani ɗaya ya kashe ɗaya.
Yazo a rubututtukan masana kimiyyar salsalar ɗan adam cewa jinsin maza sunfi rashin-ji da rashin son zaman lafiya sama da jinsin mata, don haka a kusan kafatanin tarihi sune sukafi kara kokawa a tsakaninsu ba mata ba.
Wasu masanan kimiyya mata da miji masu suna Martin Daly da Margo Wilson ne suka samar da sunan 'Young Male Syndrome' domin nuna yadda matasa mazaje ke jin karfi a jikkunan su gami da saurin aukawa cikin yanayin gogayya ko karawa a tsakaninsu, ta yadda abubuwa irinsu kokawa kan shigo ciki domin kece raini.
Ma'ana, da akai alamun cewa tun asali, mutum ya soma kokawa ne ba domin wasa ba, sai dai bisa dalilai guda biyu:-
Na ɗaya shine Kece raini.
Na biyu kuwa shine samun daraja ko ganima.
Masanin halayyar ɗan adam Aaron Lukaszewski, yayi wani bincike game da dalilan dake sa mutane ke yawan faɗa a Junansu, inda a karshe ya karkare da cewa mafi yawan karfafan mazaje sukanso kece raini a tsakaninsu, don haka akwai yiwuwar kartai biyu majiya karfi su kaure da kokawa bisa karamin dalili a zahiri, amma a baɗini suna yin kokawar ne domin kece raini. Saɓanin jinsin mata daya lura da cewa karfafan cikinsu sunfi kawaici da hakuri, yayin da raunanan mata keda yawan son tsokana da tada fitina gami da amfani da hakora don tserar da kansu idan aka samu ɓacin rana.
Dangane da yin kokawa bisa rajin samun tagomashi kuwa, akwai kyakkyawan hasashen cewa mutanen da suka gabace mu sun sanya kokawa ne a matsayin hanyar gane wanda yafi wani jarumta, ta yadda duk wanda ya samu galaba kuma shine zai iya samun babbar tagomashi akan ɗanuwansa.
Yazo a tarihi yadda dakarun tsohuwar daular Girka data Misra ke shiga kokawa don auna kakkarfa da jurau a tsakaninsu. Haka kuma a daular katsina ta kasar Hausa, an samu cewar a wani lokaci ana iya zamowa sarkin wannan daula ne kaɗai ta hanyar kokawa.
Wani masanin kimiyyar tarihin ɗan adam mai suna Napoleon Chagnon yayi bincike kan wata kabilar daji da aka samo mai suna 'Yanomamo' wadda ke zaune a kasar Venezuela.
Suffofin waɗannan mutane da ayyukansu kusan irin na mutanen farko ne waɗanda akace sun fara rayuwa ne a afirka kimanin shekaru sama da dubu hamsin baya. Don haka ana iya cewa har zuwa yau kabilar Yanomamo na rike da al'adu ne kwatankwacin irin na mutanen farko da suke rufe tsiraicinsu da ganyaye.
A binciken na Napoleon, ya lura da cewa kabilar suna kiran jarumin cikinsu da suna 'Unokai', sunan dake cike da girmamawa ga mutumin da yake da karfin kare kabilarsa daga makiya.
Unokai yana zamowa mai yawan mataye, da yawan 'ya'yaye. Don haka burin kowanne namiji dake wannan kabilar shine ya zama kamarsa.
Wannan ke zama silar da yara tun suna kanana suke koyan kokawa, domin na farko su kece raini ga sa'anninsu, sannan na biyu idan girma yazo musu su samu lakabin Unokai tayadda zasu samu tarin girma acikin jama'arsu gami da mataye da 'ya'yaye.
Wannan shine babban tarihin da zamu rinka tunawa a koda yausjlhe idan muka kalli kokawa.
Na farko dai mu gane cewar asalinta an sanyatane domin auna wanda yafi wani jarumta a tsakanin mazaje.
Daga baya kuma sai aka rinka sanya darajoji akanta gami da mayar da ita gasa tayadda duk masu son mallakar girma, sarauta, mataye da 'ya'yaye da sauran abubuwan duniya masu daraja sai ace su shiga kokawa domin nema, wanda yayi rinjaye shine da nasara.
Sabo haka kokawa tsohuwar al'ada ce wadda mutum yayo gadonta shekaru da yawa da suka gabata. Shiyasa ake samunta cikin kusan kowacce kabila.
Abu na karshe shine, tsarin kokawa yana nan bai sauya ba. Domin har zuwa yau anfi yin kokawa ne a tsakanin mutane biyu domin samun wani abu mai amfani, kuma a tsakiyar tulin mutane masu shaidarwa.
Sai dai kurum akwai wayewa da tayi tasiri acikinta tayadda ake sanya alkali mai lura da lokaci gami da yanke hukunci, da sanya yashi ko kasa ta musamman a wurin yin kokawa, sai kuma samar da abin kiɗa domin karfafa guiwa gami annushuwa tsakanin masu kokawa da masu kallonsu.
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Tarihi Abin Tunawa: Yadda Mulkin Mallaka a Nigeria ya kasance kafin bada 'yancin kai.

Tarihi Abin Tunawa: Yadda Mulkin Mallaka a Nigeria ya kasance kafin bada 'yancin kai.


 

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo

Alhamdullah. Shekaru da dama da suka gabata, yankunan da suka hadu suka bada Kasa mai suna Nigeria, suna karbar bak'una daga sassa mabambanta na duniya.
A baya-baya nan, wajajen shekara ta 1807, lokacin da masarautar Edu ke kan sharafi, turawa na zuwa yankin domin dillancin bayi izuwa turai. Daga baya kuma sai turawa suka dira a lagos, sannan kamfanin su mai suna Royal Oil company ya wanzu a wajajen Shekara ta 1884 wanda mulkin wasu sassan kasar ya koma karkashin jagorancin George Taubman Goldie mai rike da shugabancin kamfanin kenan, shima kamfanin daga bisani ya gusa inda wasu kamfanonin suka kafu. A takaice dai, daga shekara ta 1900 kafin fara mulkin mallaka, kamfanoni biyu ke mulkar sassan Nigeria guda biyu, watau Southern Protectorant Company a kudu, sai kuma Northern protectorant Company a arewacin kasar, masu kamfanonin sun kasance turawan Ingila, sune kuma jagorori masu kula da siye da siyarwa a yankunan. Suna da sojoji da kayan yaki, tayadda suke amfani da karfinsu wajen maganin duk wata barazana.
Ance a shekarar 1884 ne yayin wata tattaunawa tsakankanin manyan kasashen duniya na wancan lokacin a birnin Berlin na kasar Jamus, akayi kasafin yankunan Afirka don fara gudanar musu da mulkin mallaka. Yankunan Nigeria na kudu da arewa duk sun fada ne a hannun turawan birtaniya, sabanin yankin Niger daya fada a hannun faransa da kuma yankin Cameroon daya fada hannun Jamus.
Kasancewar hakan, sai yasa Ingila tayi shawarar hade yankunan wuri daya. An fara wannan aiki tun a shekarar 1912, amma bai tabbata ba sai a shekarar 1914, a lokacin turawa sun kammala cinye duk wata masarauta kenan dake yankin da yaki. A lokacin kuma, sai aka baiwa tsohon shugaban Mulkin mallaka a Hongkong, Sir Lord Lugard mukamin gwamna janar wanda zai jagoranci mulkin arewaci da kudancin kasar bisa umarnin da zai rinka amsa daga can kasar ta ingila. Hakan na nufin Ingila ta karbe ikon mulki daga hannun kowa, yanzu abinda takeso shi za'ayi a yankin.
Ance babban abin tunawa da Gwamna Lugard a iya zaman da yayi a Lagos yana shugabanci shine kokarinsa na dakatar da cinikin bayi da kuma tabbatar da yankunan sun zamo a hade. Masanan tarihi sun bayyana Lugard da mutum ne tsatstsaura wanda baya jure raini daga bakar fata. Sannan kuma duk da kasancewar sa ya taba rike mukamin gwamnan arewa a baya, ance yafi yiwa kudancin kasar aiki. Dalilin hakan na cikin wani tsari daya kafa bisa sahalewar ingila, cewa kowanne yanki zai rinka samun aikace-aikace ne bisa harajin da suke tarawa. A wancan lokacin ana samun haraji mai yawa daga hada-hadar giya a kudu, amma a arewa giya abar kyama ce saboda musulunci.
Matar Gwamna Lugard mai suna Flora Shaw wadda akace yar jarida ce ta kamfanin 'The Times' ta rinka taimakonsa wajen gudanar da mulki. Itace kuma akace ta lakabawa wannan kasa sunan Nigeria.
A zamanin mulkin Lugard ne yakin Adubi ya barke a kudancin kasar. Inda kabilar Egba ta yankin yarabawa suka dauki makamai tare da lalata titunan layin dogo (jiragen kasa) da kuma hallaka wasu turawa masu wakiltar ingila dake zama a yankin nasu. Dalilinsu nayin haka shine uzzura musu da akeyi wajen karbar haraji, da kuma tilasta musu bisa yin aiki ga turawa. Kamar misalin layin dogo, duk yan kasa turawan ke tursasa yin leburan cinsa cikin zafin rana da kishirwa.
Gwamna Lugard dai bai saurarawa mutanen nan ba. Inda ya taso rundunar soji tazo yankin ta yakesu, kuma taci galaba akansu. Allahu Akbar!
Gwamna Lugard ya rinka turawa Ingila bayanan duk wani abu dayayi a shekara. Wani Kundi mai suna 'Blue Book' a 'Encyclopedia Britannica' ya nuna yadda takardun nasa suka rinka kasancewa. A ra'ayinsa kuma, bai dauki bakar fata mutun kamar baturen ingila ba. Saboda yace bakaken fata nada rauni, idan kabasu fuska rainaka zasuyi. Idan kabasu dama kuma yakar ka zasuyi. Shiyasa ya hana baiwa bakar fata ko daya shugabanci a zamaninsa. Ya kirkiri majalisar zartaswa, amma babu bakar fata wakili koda guda daya, sai dai wata majalisa kurum ta jeka-na-yika daya kafa wadda aka tsulma sarakunan mulki aciki, sukuwa basu da ikon cewa kanzil wajen aiwatar wa, sai dai sujira umarni kurum daga gareshi.
A ranar 8 ga watan agusta na shekarar 1919 ne Sir Hugh Clifford ya amshi mulki bayan Lugard yayi ritayar aiki. Shikuwa abin tunawa ne ko don kundin tsarin mulki daya sabunta, daga wanda Lugard yayi izuwa sabo wanda ya baiwa 'yan k'asa kafar kirkirar jam'iyyu da kuma kamfanin jarida, da wannan damar Herbert Macaulay yayi amfani wajen kirkirar jam'iyyar siyasa ta farko a kasar nan maisuna 'Nigerian National Democratic Party'. Tare da kirkirar gidan jaridar 'west African Pilot'.
Baya da haka, kundin tsarin mulkin ya tanaji wata majalisar jeka-nayi-ka mai wakilai 46 wadda hudu daga cikinsu yan kasa ne suka zabo su daga yankin lagos da ibadan. Amma fa duk da haka, turawa nanan akan bakansu na cewar babu ruwan yan kasa da tsoma bakin su akan yadda ake mulkarsu. Domin babu bakar fata ko daya a sahun majalisar zartarwar sa, duk turawa ne. Sannan arewacin kasar ya cigaba da zamowa saniyar ware, wanda Gwamnati bata cika kula dashi ba a lokacin.
Ranar 13 ga watan nuwamban 1925 ya zama lojacin fara mulkin Sir Graemi Thompson a matsayin gwamna janar mai shugabantar hadaddiyar Nigeria. Shine wanda akace ya zagaya tun daga ikko har zuwa Borno a mota. Sannan ya samar da karin layukan dogo a sassan kasar, ba illa ma a arewa inda harajin gudanarwar aiyuka yayi karanci, amma ance sai rance akayo daga harajin da kudu ke samarwa wajen aiwatar da aiyukan da arewan ke bukata.
Bayan gushewar sa, sai Sir Donald Charles Cameron ya soma mulki a ranar 17 ga watan yuni na shekarar 1931. Ance Mutum neshi mai daraja bakar fata da son hadin kai. Yayi matukar kokari wajen ilimantar da yan Nigeria ilimin zamani ta hanyar bude makarantu a sassan kasar tare da samar da malamai daga turai. An ma taba jiyoshi yana cewa " Mun zo nan Afirka ne a madadin Kasar Birtaniya domin mu koyar da 'yan Afirkan yadda zasu dogara da kansu. Da zarar wannan muradi ya cika, wajibin mune mu gusa gefe. Hakan kuwa zai dauki tsawon lokaci kafin mu cimmasa, amma kafin nan, dole ne duk abinda zamuyi, muyishi bisa wannan muradin" (Extract ID:4918, Wikipedia-Britannica).
Bayan shi sai Sir Bernand Henry Bourdillon, wanda ya soma mulki a ranar 1 ga watan nuwambar 1935. Shi kuwa ya kamata a tuna dashi ko-dan yadda ya janyo sarakunan arewa masu zaman saniyar ware a gudarwar mulki izuwa cikin mulki. Ya ziyarci manyan sarakunan arewa, ya fada musu cewa ba dai-dai bane rashin tsulma bakunan su a salon gudanar war kasarnan, sannan ya shaida musu irin illar da hakan ke iya samarwa. Ance ya fahimci cewa turawan mulki basu cika kula da arewacin kasar ba saboda dalilai biyu; Na farko, tun sanda Sir Lugard yana mulki ya baiwa ingila shawarar cewa abu ne mai wuya yan arewa su mika kai dari-bisa-dari ga turawan mulki, don haka zaifi kyau a mulki arewa ta hannun sarakunan ta. watau sarakuna na mulkar talakawa, turawa kuma na mulkar sarakuna (sabanin a kudanci da turawan ke mulki kai tsaye ga talakawa). Sannan kuma Lugard din ya fahimci jinin yakibda son shugabanci a jinin al'ummar hausa-fulani, shiyasa yake ganin idan aka basu dama zasu yiwa turawan mulki bore. Abu na biyu kuwa shine karancin harajin dake fitowa a yankin.
Don haka, Sir Bourdillon yayi kokari wajen samar da makarantun zamani a yankin arewa, amma dai manufarsa ta ilimantarwa bata cimmu ba tunda kakannin mu lokacin suna k'in bature da kuma kin duk wani abu daya kawo na sauyi a wancan zamani.
Daga nan sai Sir Arthur Richard ya amshi mulki a shekarar 1943. A lokacin mulkin sane yan kasa (mafi yawa daga kudancin kasar) suka fara kiraye-kirayen abasu 'yancin kai. Hakan ya samu ne saboda an fara wayewa, an samo baiwa wasu kasashen yancin kai, sannan uwa-uba, gwamnan yana da sauki kuma. Shiyasa turawa suke kiran Sir Arthur da lusari, saboda acewar su sanyin sane yasa har aka fara yin wannan ikirari. Abin tunawa a mulkinsa shine ya samar da sabon kundin tsarin mulki a wanda ya raba kasar izuwa sassa uku, gabas, kudu da arewa. A lokacin sane kuma yakin duniya na biyu ya auku, don haka bai samu nutsuwar aiwatar da manyan aiyuka ba.
A shekarar 1948 kuwa Sai sir John Stuart MacPherson ya amshi mulki, wanda ya mukki kasar har izuwa shekara ta 1955. Shima dai ya sabunta kundin tsarin mulki wanda aka sawa suna 'MacPherson constitution'. Koda yake, ance tsarin mulkin baiyiwa wasu dadi ba, hakan yasa Jam'iyyar NCNC ta tattara kudade daga hannun 'yan kasa ta tura ingila akayi kara, daga bisani ingila ta soke kundin. Sannan yayi sassauci wajen sauya sunan wasu yankuna da kadarorin gwamnati daga sunayen da turawa suka sanya wanda yafi musu dadi, izuwa sunayen da yarukan wurin suka fi ganewa. Abinda a turance ake kira 'Africanization'.
Sir James Wilson shine Gwamna janar na karshe a tarihin mulkin mallaka a Nigeria. Ya soma mulki ne a ranar 15 ga watan yuni na shekarar 1955, sannan ya mika mulki a hannun Mr. Nmandi Azikwe, wanda yake shine bakar fata na farko dan Nigeria, daya fara mulkin kasar, a ranar 16 ga watan nuwamba na shekarar 1960.
Ance Sir Robertson bayan komawar sa gida, ya shiga damuwa da takaici bisa yadda 'yan afirka suka rushe duk wani asasin gina kasa da turawa suka kafa musu a iya zaman su a kasashen Afirka suka shiga yake-yake da juna tare da neman yancin kai a tsakanin su. Ya fadi hakan karara a littafin sa mai suna 'Africa in Transition: From direct rule to Independence, wanda aka buga a shekarar 1974. ya kuma fadi cewar 'yan afirka sunyi kusskuren neman 'yanci tun da farko, domin abinda suka sani yanzu (na yake-yake da almundahna) basu sanshiba a baya, shiyasa tun a lokacin suka rinka matsa lambar korar turawa tare da karbar yancin kai, shiyasa kuma muka yanke shawarar basu abinda suke so..
Wannan dai shine takaitaccen zance game da Shugabannin mulkin mallaka a Nigeria.
Da fatan Allah ya albarkaci wannan kasa tamu da zaman lafiya da kuma yalwar arziki. Amin
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
08060869978
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TARIHIN HAMSHAKIN MATAFIYIN DAYA ZAGAYE SASSAN DUNIYA, IMAM MUHAMMAD IBN BATTUTA.

TARIHIN HAMSHAKIN MATAFIYIN DAYA ZAGAYE SASSAN DUNIYA, IMAM MUHAMMAD IBN BATTUTA.

Tare da SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
08060869978

A yau, muna farin cikin fara kawo muku tarihin babban matafiyin duniya, wanda yaga tudu yaga kwari, ya kuma kwashe shekaru ashirin da hudu yana ta fagafniya da yawace-yawace a sassan duniya, sannan daga bisani ya rubuta taqaitaccen tarihin tafiyar sa a wani littafi maisuna "RIHLA".
Kamar yadda hausawa ke cewa tafiya mabudin ilimi, to haqiqa ta hanyar tafiye-tafiye, Imam ibn Batuta ya tara dumbin ilimin da ayau sai an tara dumujin farfesoshi ba'a samu rabin ilimin saba.
Cikakken sunan sa shine Abu Abdullahi Muhammad Ibn Abdullahil Lawatit Tangi ibn Battuta, amma yafi shahara da sunan Muhammad ibn Battuta. An haifeshi a ranar 25 ga watan fabrairu na shekarar 1304, a wani da ake kira Tangier dake qasar Morocco a yanzu.
Ibn Battuta ya samu ilimin addinin islama a qarqashin tsangayu masu bin mazhabar imamuna Maliku, inda kuma a watan yuni na shekarar 1325 ibn Battuta ya kamu dason tafiya qasar Saudiyya don yin aikin Hajji, alokacin kuwa yana da shekaru 21 ne kachal da haihuwa. Allahu Akbar!
Abin mamakin shine, a wancan lokacin, dukkan mai son risqar birnin Makkah daga garin Tangier, sai ya shafe watanni goma sha shidda yana yawo a dazuka da sahara sannan zai isa. Amma hakan bai tsorata ibn batuta ba, hasali ma shi kadai ya tattara 'yan komatsan sa yayi haramar fara wannan gagarumar tafiya mai cike da hadari. Ga abinda ya rubuta dangane da hakan a farkon littafin RIHLA.
"Na fara rptafiya ta ne ni kadai, bani da kowa dake biye dani, babu wasu matafiya kuma da nake bi. Ina tafiyar ne cikin zumdi da qwarin guiwa, saboda tsananin son yin tafiyar ya cika mini zuciya. Wannan kuma shine silar data sa na dauki qaddarar rabuwa da masoyana na gida, mazan su da matsan su kamar yadda tsuntsaye ke barin sheqoqin su. Iyayena sunyi matuqar shaquwa dani, wandaa hakan ke nuna rabuwar mu zan sanya damuwa a zukatan su. Hakika kuma rabuwa dasu yayi matuqar sani damuwa, amma haka nan na tsallakesu cikin jimami"
Sannu a hankali, ibn Batuta na tafiyar sa a dokar daji, wani wurin ya tsallake ruwa, wani wurin kuma ya kutsa kai cikin sahara har ya isa wani gari mai suna Tlencan, anan ne kuma yaci karo da wasu tarin matafiya wadanda wasunsu ke maniyyata ne izuwa kasar Sa'udi Arabiya don gudanar da aikin hajji. Kun san a wancan lokaci, tafiya mutum daya nada matuqar hadari saboda dumbin ababen tsoro daka iya faruwa, kamar misalin 'yan fashi da masau farautar bayi, ko muggan dabbobin daji, shiyasa akanyi dabarar hada gungu na matafiya, wanda za'a samu sadaukai a ciki, wadanda zasu iya tarar duk wani hatsari da zai iya fadowa.
Ibn Batuta, ya bayyana mana cewa acikin wadannan matafiya, akwai wadanda suke haye bisa dawakai, akwai na kan jakuna, harma dana kan raquma. A gurin wasu mutanen , haduwa da wannan ayari babbar ni'ima ce saboda tsira daga sharrikan tafiya, amma a gurin Ibn Battuta, wata kafa ya samu ta sanin abinda bai sani ba daga wurin wadannan matafiya.
Ibn Battuta yace Ayarinsu ya dunguma bisa hanya, tafiya akeyi babu qaqqautawa. Shikuma matsar mutane yakeyi don jin labari, da koyon ilimai. A haka suka iso gavar kogin Algiers inda akace yawan Ayarin ya qaru sabili da hadewar wata tawagar matafiya da tasu, sannan suka dunguma bisa hanya baki daya.
A wani gari mai suna Bijaya, Ibn Battuta ya kamu da rashin lafiya. Sai wasu abokan tafiyar sa suke shawartar sa da ya sauka a wannan garin ya huta. In yaso idan ya samu lafiya sai ya nemi wani Ayarin yacigaba da tafiya. Amma Ibn Battuta yace sam haka bazata faru ba, shine ma yake cewa "Idan har Allah Ta'ala ya qadarta mutuwata, ina fatan ta sameni alhali ina bisa hanya, fuskata tana fuskantar garin Makkah" don haka sai aka kyaleshi aka cigaba da tafiya.
Bayan tafiya tayi tafiya ne, sai ayarin ya risqi wani gari mai suna constantine, wanda yake wani gari ne babba a wannan yanki. Anan ne akace Ibn Battuta ya samu damar ganawa da gwamnan garin, harma gwamnan ya tausaya masa ya bashi kyautar kudi da kuma kayan sawa na masu kyau don ya sauya kayan dake jikinsa wadanda sukayi cidin-cidin kuma suka yayyage. Ibn Battuta yaji dadin wannan kyauta, kuma ya bayyana kyautar a matsayin kyauta ta farko da akayi masa a halin tafiyarsa.
Bayan sunyi hutu kadan a garin sai suka cigaba da tafiya, anan ne kuma akace rashin lafiyar Ibn Battuta ta qara yin tsamari, inda har saida takai baya iya zama akan sirdi, sai da abokan tafiyar sa sukayi dabarar daureshi da igiya yana bisa doki don gudun fadowa sannan akaci gava da tafiya sannu a hankali har suka risqi wani hamshaqin gari mai suna Tunis. A wannan lokaci rashin lafiya ta galabaitar da ibn batuta sosai, shine ma yake cewa "zuciyata ta cika tsananin baqin ciki saboda ciwo da yake damuna. Idanuna sun wanzu zubar da hawaye, na wanzu cikin kadaici da bacin rai. A haka wani daga cikin mahajjata ya fahimci halin da nake ciki, shine ya tunkaro ni da gaisuwa gami da zantuka na abokanta, ya wanzu yana rarrashina a haka har muka shiga cikin garin"
A cikin garin ne kuma ibn Battuta ya bayyana Tunis a matsayin qasaitaccen birni wanda yake dauke da dogayen masallatai ginannu, da fadoji na alfarma da kwalejojin ilimi gami da lambunan shaqatawa masu kyau. Ibn Battuta yace birnin Tuniss gari ne wanda ya shahara a fannin al'adu da malamai na fannonin ilimi. Sannan kuma gavar teku ce da akebi don daukar kayayyaki misalin Bayi, hatsi, man zaitun, fata da alharini daga Afirka ta yamma izuwa sassan duniya.
Ibn Battuta ya shafe watanni biyu a garin Tunis, a wata makaranta, inda yayi jinya daga baya kuma ya shiga fafutikar daukar darasi bayan ya samu lafiya.
Daga qarshe, Ibn Battuta yabar Tunis yana cikin wani Ayarin matafiya gagarumi wanda yake dauke da sadaukai kala-kala na gwamnan garin wadanda zasu basu kariya daga Mahara da larabawa 'yan tawaye, sannan kuma Ibn battuta ya samu tagomashi babba a wannan ayari, inda har aka nada shi Alqalin ayarin duk kuwa da kasancewar sa matashi mai qananun shekaru.
A cikin wannan halin tafiyar ne suka keta ta kasar libya, suka fara yunkurin ketawa ta garin Tripoli. A nan ne kuma Ibn Battuta ya nemi auren 'yar wani na hannun damar gwamnan Tunis wanda shima yake haramar zuwa aikin hajji, sannan kuma garin Tripoli aka gabatar masa da budurwar tasa, amma kuma sai akace sabani ya shiga a tsakanin ibn battuta da sirikin nasa abinda yayi sanadiyyar warware maganar auren, daga bisani Ibn battua ya nemi auren 'yar wani Malami kuma mahajjaci dake cikin tawagar wanda ya fito daga wani gari waishi Fez, wannan mata kuma itace matar ibn Battuta ta farko.
Ibn Battuta yace sun bar garin Tripoli kadan, sai sukaga qura ta turnuqe sama, wasu gungun mahara 'yan ta'adda suna fuskanto su riqe da muggan makamai. Amma Ibn Battuta yace cikin ikon Allah sai wannan runduna ta zagaye su ba tare da anyi wani artabu ba. Daga nan kuma basu qara cin karo da wani abu ba har suka isa karshen gabashin kasashen larabawa, kimanin tafiyar mil dubu kenan daga garin su Ibn Battuta Tangier, wanda yayi dai-dai da watanninsa tara rabonsa da gida, sannan kuma sauran sa watanni takwas ya risqi kasar saudiyya, don haka sai yayi shawarar leqawa garin Cairo (Alqahira) na qasar egypt don yawon bude ido.
Ibn Battuta ya bayyana Alqahira a matsayin gari mafi girma a duniya bayan qasar china a wancan lokaci. Inda ya kimanta mazauna garin da cewa adadinsu ya tasamma mutum dubu dari shidda. Ya kuma ce garin shine mafi girma sama da duk wani garin larabawa a duniya a wancan zamani.
Daga nan tawaga ta dora da tafiya, inda suka sauka a wani qasaitaccen gari mai suna Alekzandariya. Gari qayatacce wanda yake a gavar teku inji Ibn Battuta. A wannan shekara ta 1326 ne ibn Battuta ke samun tarihin cewa Sarkin Alekzandariya asalin sa bawa ne wanda ya kwace mulki daga hannun ubangijinsa tun ashekarar 1260, sannan kuma yayi nasarar yaqi da mongwalawa, wasu mayaqa wadanda suka qwace garin bagadada da sauran garuruwan musulunci. Don haka a wancan lokacin, sarkin Alekzandariya ke mulkin qasashen egypt dana syria.
A garin alekzandariya Ibn Battuta yace ya hadu da wasu manyan mutane guda biyu. Na farko shine Imam Burhanuddin wanda yayi hasashen cewar Ibn Battuta shine matafiyin duniya, har ma yace masa "Na fahimci kana son yin tafiye-tafiye, don haka ina ganin cewa zaka samu damar ziyartar yanuwana fariduddin a indiya, da Rukunuddin a birnin Sind da kuma Burhanuddin a China. Dukkan su ka isar min da gaisuwa ta agaresu". Daya mutumin kuwa sunan sa Imam Murshidi, shine kuma wanda ya fassarawa Ibn Battuta wani mafarki daya tava yi a garin, inda Iman Murshidi ya sanar dashi cewar ma'anar mafarkin shine Ibn Battutan zai zamo shahararren matafiyin duniya...THIS IS A KHUTBAH WHICH WAS GIVEN BY ONE USTAZ FROM OSOGBO, OSUN (NIGERIA)
 
What a touching KHUTUBAH please if time allows you read it. 
It's worth a REMINDER;

Forwarded as received.

"Every human is a slave. You're either a slave of your desires or a slave of ALMIGHTY-ALLAH. You either live life by your rules or the rule of ALMIGHTY-ALLAH.

How can the heart travel to God if it's chained by its desires? 

O' son of ADAM! Sell this World for the HEREAFTER and you win both, sell the HEREAFTER for this world & you lose BOTH. #DEEN OVER DUNYA

IBN QAYYIM AL-JAWZIYAH

ISLAM is not a buffet where you pick and choose what suits you. Don't obey your desires. Obey ALMIGHTY-ALLAH.
"Imprisoned is he, whose heart is imprisoned from ALMIGHTY-ALLAH. Captured is he, who is captured by his desires." 

FUDAYL IBN IYAD was asked "What do you find the strangest of all things?" He said: The heart that knows ALMIGHTY-ALLAH, yet still disobeys Him 

Don’t miss SALĀH for the sake of people. You were BORN & will DIE alone, you’ll go to the GRAVE alone & be questioned alone on JUDGMENT Day
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الْأَخِلَّاءُ يَوْمَئِذٍ بَعْضُهُمْ لِبَعْضٍ عَدُوٌّ إِلَّا الْمُتَّقِينَ
Close friends, on that Day, will be enemies to each other, except for the righteous and GOD-FEARING..." •[Surah Az-Zukhruf:67]

FAJR you're asleep, ZUHUR you're busy, ASR you're tired, MAGRIB you're watching tv, ISHA you're eating. You can dodge PRAYER, but not DEATH.

We prepare for uncertain matters in our life like MARRIAGE etc but do we prepare for the one event that is definitely going to happen #DEATH 

The first thing a slave will be held to account for is SALAH. If we fall short on that, then we will fall short on what's to come.

FAJR: Do not fear missing sleep. Fear a day in which there will be no SLEEP.”😔

Expecting PARADISE whilst neglecting PRAYER, is like waiting for a TRAIN to arrive at the AIRPORT. Remember to pray DHUHR

Everyone DREAMS to be in JANNATUL-FIRDAUS, but ALMIGHTY-ALLAHﷻ says:
لَّيْسَ بِأَمَانِيِّكُمْ 
PARADISE is not obtained by your wishful thinking •[An-Nisa 4:123] #work hard 4 HEREAFTER 

"If you could hear the sound of the pens of the ANGELS writing your name among those who remember ALMIGHTY-ALLAH, you'd die out of joy." -IBN AL-QAYYIM 

This DUNYA Is Not A Resting Place 👉It's A TESTING Place! #Earn GOOD DEEDS!

The world is a prison for the believer and a PARADISE for the unbeliever". [MUSLIM] Your release here, sooner or later will be coming to an end.

IBN AL-QAYYIM(رحمه اللّٰه):
"He whom ALMIGHTY-ALLAH has predestined to enter PARADISE, the reasons which will cause his entrance shall spring from calamities;

He whom ALMIGHTY-ALLAH has predestined to enter the HELLFIRE, the reasons which will cause his entrance shall spring from lusts” 

Get used to a rough life, for luxury does not last forever. -UMAR IBN AL KHATTAB 

Do not be overly pleased by easy times. Verily, GOLD is tested for its purity by fire. Likewise,a righteous servant is tested by tribulations

It pains me to see born MUSLIMS chasing the lifestyle of the disbelievers by drinking, clubbing, getting high etc.

Why do you think reverts run away from that life to the deen of ALLAH. Run back to your Lord for His mercy overcomes His wrath.

How long will the person be happy with his worldly life?..Knowing that his ultimate home is the grave"

No matter how beautiful your face is, you will still be the food of worms when you are buried. Set aside your arrogance & remember your grave

Every single limb & organ in your body will speak up & bear witness against every action you committed in this DUNYA 
مَّا يَلْفِظُ مِن قَوْلٍ إِلَّا لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ
Not a word is said except that there is a watcher by him ready to record it.” [Surah Qaf:18] This includes all that you posted.

Hijab includes the way a person walks, talks, looks and thinks. All of it should be done modestly and applies to both men and women" #Hijab

My dear sisters in ISLAM. Cover up for the sake of ALLAH before its too late as today you are over the soil but tomorrow you may be under it

Yes hijab doesn't necessarily indicate your level of piety BUT it is fard (a must). So regardless of what you say, you HAVE to wear it.

Make tawba (sincere repentance) not just for sins you've committed, but also for obligations you haven't fulfilled.” [Ibn Taymiyyah]

I pray that the comfort of our graves exceeds the comfort of our beds. 

We ask ALMIGHTY-ALLAH سبحانه وتعالى to take our souls away when He's most pleased with us and make us of those who are always conscious.

AMEEN-YAA-RABBAL-ALLAHMEEN!


*subhanaka Allahuma wabihamdika wa-ashadu anla illaha anta astagfirka waatubu ilaik.


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THE ORIGIN OF NIGERIAN STATE NAMES

THE ORIGIN OF NIGERIAN STATE NAMES



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Abia:
Abia is an acronym derived from the name of the four main groups of the people in the state as at the time it was formed in 1991: Aba, Bende, Isuikwuato & Afikpo.

Adamawa:
This state was named after a warrior that conquered the region in the beginning of the 19th century. His name was Modibbo Adama Bin Ardo Hassan.

Akwa-Ibom:
Akwa Ibom is named after a river, the Qua Iboe (or Kwa Iboe) River.

Anambra:
It was derived from the name of the Oma Mbala
(Omambala) River (in Igbo, the native name of the river is Ànyịm Ọma Mbala).

Bauchi:
There are 3 versions of how Bauchi got its name. One version says ‘Bauchi’ is Hausa word meaning the southern flanks of Hausaland. Tribes living in the southern parts of the Hausaland were referred to as "kasashen bauchi".

Bayelsa:
Bayelsa was formed as a result of the clamour from the three LGAs in old Rivers (Brass LGA known as BALGA, Yenagoa LGA known as YELGA and Sagbama LGA – SALGA). The name came about from the combination of their acronymns.
BA + YEL + SA = BAYELSA.

Benue:
It is a word from the Batta language ‘Binuwe’ which means ‘Mother of Waters’.

Borno: 
The name was derived from ‘Borno’, an alternative name of the Kanuris who form the predominant ethnic group in the state.

Cross River:
The state took its name from a River called Oyono or Cross River.

Delta:
It was named after the delta of the River Niger formed as it enters the Atlantic Ocean.

Ebonyi:
The state was named after the Aboine River that cuts through Abakaliki, the state capital.

Edo:
Named after the Bini people who had always referred to themselves as Edo or Iduu.

Ekiti:
‘Ekiti’ is a term that is said to denote a settlement of many hills.

Enugu:
Enugu derived its name from two local words "enu" & "ugwu" which means ‘top of the hill’.

Gombe:
Named after the dialect of Fulani language (Fulfulde) spoken in the area ‘Gombe’.

Imo:
This state is named after the Imo River (Mmiri Imo).

I sincerely hope the current Governor doesn't rename the state to Rochas Foundation before his tenure elapses.

Jigawa:
The state was named after its distinctively golden-coloured soil, Jigawa.

Kaduna:
The state after the crocodiles in Kaduna River. "Kadduna" is Hausa plural word for crocodiles.

Kano:
The state was named after a blacksmith of the Gaya tribe who settled in the area while sourcing for ironstone. His name was Kano.

Katsina:
Katsina was named after the wife of the local ruler known as Janzama. Her name was Katsina.

Kebbi:
Legend has it that Kebbi was named after the Ka’abba in Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

Kogi:
The name Kogi was said to have been derived from ‘kogi’, (hausa word for river). This is to represent the fact that the two biggest Rivers in Nigeria, River Niger and River Benue form a confluence in the state.

Kwara:
This was named after the River Niger which forms the Northern border of the state. The Nupes used to call the river, Kwara.

Lagos:
The name is a Portuguese word for lakes. The Portuguese were the first settlers from Europe to reach Lagos in 1472. The name was inspired by the lagoons and rivers in Lagos.

Nasarawa:
It was so named by the founder of Nasarawa kingdom, Makama Dogo. Nasarawa means Victorious.

Niger:,
Niger Named after the popular River Niger.

Ogun:
Named after the Ogun River.

Ondo:
This was named after the settlers of the old Ondo Kingdom. Ondo is a word for settlers.

Osun:
Like a number of other Nigerian states, it was also named after a river; River Osun.

Oyo:
It was named after the Old Oyo empire.

Rivers:
A state with many water bodies, Rivers State was named for many of the rivers present in the area.

Sokoto:
Named after the defunct Sokoto Caliphate. Sokoto is the anglicized version of the Arabic word ‘suk’ which means ‘market’ or ‘place of commerce’.

Taraba:
The state was named after the Taraba River.

Yobe:
The state was named after Komadugu Yobe (Waube or Ouobe) or River Yobe (or River of Yo).

Finally,

Zamfara:
Zamfarawa the land of Jambarawa.

Abuja :

The name “Abuja” was derived from Abu Ja, a brother to Muhammadu Makau, the last Hausa ruler of Zaria.Makau had left Zaria after being defeated by the Fulani and settled in the area now known as Abuja. 

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50 Interesting Facts You Did Not Know About Sir Ahmadu Bello

50 Interesting Facts You Did Not Know About Sir Ahmadu Bello 


    Sir Ahmadu Bello was a prominent northern Nigerian politician and only premier of the northern region who until his death held the title of Sardauna of Sokoto.Sir Ahmadu Bello was born on the 12th of June 1910 and died on January 15, 1966. He was a Nigerian politician who was the first and only premier of the Northern Nigeria region. He also held the title of Sardauna of Sokoto. He was also a leader of the defunct Northern People's Congress. According to History Ville,here are 50 things you didn't know about the late Nigerian politician.****

1. Ahmadu Bello was born on June 12, 1909 in Rabbah, present day, Sokoto State.

2. He was the son of a concubine. 

3. His father died when he was 6 years old.

4. He was the only surviving son of his father and mother, Mariyamu.

5. He was a great grand-son of Shehu Uthman dan Fodio, the great Fulani jihadist. 

6. He got his Islamic and Arabic education as a teenager from Mallam Garba who was the Imam of Rabbah village.

7. He finished at the age of 16 top of his class.

8. He attended the Teacher's Training College, Katsina(later Barewa College) where he was a School Prefect and Class Captain.

9. Thereafter, he graduated as a Teacher in 1931 with a credit equivalent Grade III result.

10. He was appointed by the Sultan of Sokoto to work as a teacher at the Sokoto Middle School, where he was once a student and taught from 1931-1934.

11. He was appointed a rural administrator (District Head) at the age 25 in 1934.

12. He gave birth to a daughter after his death (posthumously).

13. He became a candidate for the succession to the throne of the Sultan of Sokoto at the age of 29.

14. He made attempts to become the Sultan of Sokoto but was not successful, losing to Sir Siddiq Abubakar III who reigned for 50 years until his death in1988.

15. The new Sultan immediately made Sir Ahmadu Bello the Sardauna (Warlord) of Sokoto, a honourary title and promoted him to the Sokoto Native Authority Council, these titles automatically made him the Chief Political Adviser to the Sultan.

16. Later, he was put in charge of the Sokoto Province to oversee 47 districts.

17. In 1943, a drama played out when he was thrown before the Sultan's court for misappropriating jangali (cattle) tax for the Gusau region where he was the Councillor. 

18. He was sentenced to 1 year in prison, but spent 3 months in jail.

19. By 1944, he was back at the Sultan's Palace to work as the Chief Secretary of the State Native Administration.

20. In 1949, at the age of 40, he was nominated for a seat in the Regional House of Assembly.

21. He spoke impeccable English, and respected many European values.

22. Sir Ahmadu Bello keenly encouraged female education.

23. In 1954, Sir Ahmadu Bello became the first Premier of Northern Nigeria.

24. He never had material accumulation instincts, did not accumulate wealth and gave out whatever came into his possession. He was scrupulous and prudent with public finance but generous with his own money. 

25. In 1955, he made his first pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia.

26. The ‘Work and Worship’ motto on the Northern Nigerian crest was adopted by him.

27. He chose to remain the Premier of Northern Nigeria and gave the position of Prime Minister to his hand-picked candidate, the late Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, who was then the Deputy President of the NPC. 

28. Sir Ahmadu Bello never sought the leadership of Nigeria.

29. He once stated that he would rather be the Sultan of Sokoto than to be the leader of Nigeria.

30. At various times, he made inflammatory statements about the Ibos as he once referred to them as the ‘Jews of Nigeria’ whose sole purpose is to dominate wherever they find themselves.

31. In 1959, Queen Elizabeth II (b.1926) made him a Knight of the British Empire (KBE), and that explains the ‘Sir’ in his title. 

32. In 1962, he became Pioneer Chancellor, Ahmadu Bello University, ABU, Zaria.

33. He founded the Bank of the North (now Unity Bank). 

34. He founded the Northern Nigerian Development Company.

35. He established the 16,000-seater Ahmadu Bello Stadium, Kaduna.

36. He established the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna (the only military university in Nigeria)

37. He established the University of Northern Nigeria, which stretched from Samaru in Kaduna State to Funtua in Katsina State, on the 4th of October, 1962 now known as Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria.

38. By the beginning of 1966, it was quite clear that the Sardauna was one of the most powerful figures in the country, and many believed that he was actually the most powerful, even much more powerful than the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa. 

39. His party, Northern People Congress (NPC), held sway over 29 million out of 55 million Nigerians. 

40. On his way to Umrah (the Muslim lesser pilgrimage), he received a letter with threats to kill him.

41. The letter was said to have stated: “We have arranged to kill you and the Prime Minister (Alhaji Tafawa Balewa).” 

42. As a devout Muslim, the Sardauna believed that giving his life in the service of Northern Nigeria was worth the sacrifice and that death was a certain end.

43. He later said of the threat: “Don’t worry, continue to get useful information. I know what to do.”

44. On the morning of 15th January, 1966, armed soldiers, led by Major Patrick Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu, arrived at his residence at Lugard House, Kaduna, with the message of death. 

45. He told his family to stay away in safety but they would have none of that. They all trooped behind him as he came out of the family quarters and in a matter of seconds, he was surrounded by the soldiers led by Nzeogwu who fired at his babanriga. And immediately,blood sputtered from the point of impact through the beard on his face.

46. At that point, his first and eldest wife, Hafsatu, threw herself at him in a final embrace. They were both shot.

47. He was believed to have been killed instantly when a bullet penetrated his spinal cord. 

48. Brave till the very end, he had faced the soldiers and introduced himself as the Sardauna of Sokoto and Premier of the Northern Region.

49. He once referred to Nigeria as the ‘mistake of 1914′ but he later worked for and gave his best for the new nation of Nigeria.

50. He died leaving £10 in his bank account. Equivalent of 5,000 naira in today’s currency exchange.
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Today In History

Today In History

On This Day August28

1619 – Ferdinand II, the King of Bohemia and Hungary, was unanimously elected as Holy Roman Emperor.

1833 – The Slavery Abolition Act 1833, officially abolishing slavery in most of the British Empire, received royal assent.

1909 – A military coup d'etat against the government of Dimitrios Rallis began in the Goudi neighbourhood of Athens, Greece.

1955 – African American teenager Emmett Till was murdered near Money, Mississippi, for flirting with a white woman, energizing the nascent American civil rights movement.

1993 – The asteroid 243 Ida (pictured) became the first found to have a moon when it was visited by NASA's Galileo probe.

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HARD FACTS ABOUT SIR AHMADU BELLO

The HARD FACTS!!!
1. Ahmadu Bello was born on June 12, 1909 in Rabbah, present day, Sokoto State.
2. He was the son of a concubine.
3. His father died when he was 6 years old.
4. He was the only surviving son of his father and mother, Mariyamu.
5. He was a great grand-son of Shehu Uthman dan Fodio, the great Fulani jihadist.
6. He got his Islamic and Arabic education as a teenager from Mallam Garba who was the Imam of Rabbah village.
7. He finished at the age of 16 top of his class.
8. He attended the Teacher's Training College, Katsina (later Barewa College) where he was a School Prefect and Class Captain.
9. Thereafter, he graduated as a Teacher in 1931 with a credit equivalent Grade III result.
10. He was appointed by the Sultan of Sokoto to work as a teacher at the Sokoto Middle School, where he was once a student and taught from 1931-1934.
11. He was appointed a rural administrator (District Head) at the age 25 in 1934.
12. He gave birth to a daughter after his death (posthumously).
13. He became a candidate for the succession to the throne of the Sultan of Sokoto at the age of 29.
14. He made attempts to become the Sultan of Sokoto but was not successful, losing to Sir Siddiq Abubakar III who reigned for 50 years until his death in 1988.
15. The new Sultan immediately made Sir Ahmadu Bello the Sardauna (Warlord) of Sokoto, a honourary title and promoted him to the Sokoto Native Authority Council, these titles automatically made him the Chief Political Adviser to the Sultan.
16. Later, he was put in charge of the Sokoto Province to oversee 47 districts.
17. In 1943, a drama played out when he was thrown before the Sultan's court for misappropriating jangali (cattle) tax for the Gusau region where he was the Councillor.
18. He was sentenced to 1 year in prison, but spent 3 months in jail.
19. By 1944, he was back at the Sultan's Palace to work as the Chief Secretary of the State Native Administration.
20. In 1949, at the age of 40, he was nominated for a seat in the Regional House of Assembly.
21. He spoke impeccable English, and respected many European values.
22. Sir Ahmadu Bello keenly encouraged female education.
23. In 1954, Sir Ahmadu Bello became the first Premier of Northern Nigeria.
24. He never had material accumulation instincts, did not accumulate wealth and gave out whatever came into his possession. He was scrupulous and prudent with public finance but generous with his own money.
25. In 1955, he made his first pilgrimage to Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
26. The ‘Work and Worship’ motto on the Northern Nigerian crest was adopted by him.
27. He chose to remain the Premier of Northern Nigeria and gave the position of Prime Minister to his hand-picked candidate, the late Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa, who was then the Deputy President of the NPC.
28. Sir Ahmadu Bello never sought the leadership of Nigeria.
29. He once stated that he would rather be the Sultan of Sokoto than to be the leader of Nigeria.
30. At various times, he made inflammatory statements about the Ibos as He once referred to them as the ‘Jews of Nigeria’ whose sole purpose is to dominate wherever they find themselves.
31. In 1959, Queen Elizabeth II (b.1926) made him a Knight of the British Empire (KBE), and that explains the ‘'Sir’' in his title.
32. In 1962, he became Pioneer Chancellor, Ahmadu Bello University, ABU, Zaria.
33. He founded the Bank of the North (now Unity Bank).
34. He founded the Northern Nigerian Development Company.
35. He established the 16,000-seater Ahmadu Bello Stadium, Kaduna.
36. He established the Nigerian Defence Academy, Kaduna (the only military university in Nigeria).
37. He established the University of Northern Nigeria, which stretched from Samaru in Kaduna State to Funtua in Katsina State, on the 4th of October, 1962 now known as Ahmadu Bello University (ABU), Zaria.
38. By the beginning of 1966, it was quite clear that the Sardauna was one of the most powerful figures in the country, and many believed that he was actually the most powerful, even much more powerful than the Prime Minister, Sir Abubakar Tafawa Balewa.
39. His party, Northern People Congress (NPC), held sway over 29 million out of 55 million Nigerians.
40. On his way to Umrah (the Muslim lesser pilgrimage), he received a letter with threats to kill him.
41. The letter was said to have stated: “We have arranged to kill you and the Prime Minister (Alhaji Tafawa Balewa).”
42. As a devout Muslim, the Sardauna believed that giving his life in the service of Northern Nigeria was worth the sacrifice and that death was a certain end.
43. He later said of the threat: “Don’t worry, continue to get useful information. I know what to do.”
44. On the evening of 14th January, 1966, armed soldiers, led by Major Patrick Chukwuma Kaduna Nzeogwu, arrived at his residence at Lugard House, Kaduna, with the message of death.
45. He told his family to stay away in safety but they would have none of that. They all trooped behind him as he came out of the family quarters and in a matter of seconds, he was surrounded by the soldiers led by Nzeogwu who fired at his babban riga . And immediately, blood sputtered from the point of impact through the beard on his face.
46. At that point, his first and eldest wife, Hafsatu, threw herself at him in a final embrace. They were both shot.
47. He was believed to have been killed instantly when a bullet penetrated his spinal cord.
48. Brave till the very end, he had faced the soldiers and introduced himself as the Sardauna of Sokoto and Premier of the Northern Region.
49. He once referred to Nigeria as the ‘mistake of 1914′ but he later worked for and gave his best for the new nation of Nigeria.
50. He died leaving £10 in his bank account. Equivalent of 5,000 naira today. #copied.

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