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Showing posts with label Tarihi (History). Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tarihi (History). Show all posts

TARIHIN SHAHARARREN MASANI IMAM IBN SINA


TARIHIN SHAHARARREN MASANI IMAM IBN SINA
Daga SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
08060869978
Cikakken sunan sa shine Abu Ali Al-Husayn Abdullahi Ibn sina. Yana daya daga cikin qasurguman masana a wannan duniyar, ya kuma baiwa Ilimi kachokan gudunmuwa, wanda ya hadar da ilimin addinin islama, ilimin likitanci, ilimin falsafa, ilimin lissafi da dumbin makamantansu.
An haifeshi a watan Agusta na shekar 980AD a wani gari da ake kira Afshana, wanda keda kusanci da babban birnin daular Samanidiyya mai suna Bukhara. Sunan Mahaifiyarsa Setarah, an haifeta a garin bukhara, mahaifinsa kuwa sunan sa Abdullahi, wasu na cewa shine gwamnan afshana a wancan lokaci.
Ibn sina ya tashi cikin ilimi tun yana qanqani. Haqiqa an bayyana cewa gidansu Ibn Sina matattara ce tsakanin masu bada ilimi, da masu daukar darasi. Sannan kuma shi mutum ne mai kaifin hadda. Don haka akace ya samu nasarar haddace littafin Alkur'ani maigirma tun yana dan shekaru goma kachal a duniya.
Daga nan sai ya shiga haddace litattafai na sauran fannonin ilimi. Ya haddace hadisai masu dumbin yawa. Ya kuma haddace waqoqi na hikima irin wadanda larabawa ke rerawa babu adadi. Wasu ma sunce da zarar yaji abu yake haddace shi.
An samu a tarihi cewa, Imam Ibn sina ya fara daukar darasin zama likita tun yana dan shekaru goma sha uku a duniya. Sannan kuma ya kammala haddace tulin littattafan likitancin wancan zamani yana dan shekaru goma sha shidda da haihuwa, watau shekaru uku kenan da fara daukar darasin nasa. Ilimin daya samu a wannan lokacin yasa aka sahale masa fara duba marasa lafiya daban-daban. Kenan muna iya cewa, ibn sina na daya daga cikin likitoci masu quruciya a tarihin duniya.
A wannan lokacin ana fama da yaqe-yaqe. Sarkin bukhara mai suna Nuh Ibn Mansur na fama da maqiya kala-kala, kokarin sa shine ya qarawa wannan daular tasa qarfi da fadin qasa. Ance akwai wani lokaci da bashi da lafiya, sai ya shiga neman qwararren likita. A nan ne ya samu labarin qwarewar ibn sina, nan take kuwa ya aika akazo dashi domin yayi masa magani. Da akayi sa'a kuwa, Ibn sina ya bayar da magani kuma sarki ya samu waraka. Wannan abu saiya daukaka darajar Ibn sina a yankin baki daya.
Daga cikin tagomashin daya samu shine na zamowa babban likitan sarki Nuh ibn Mansur, wanda ance daga bisani Ibn sina ya rinqa samun kudaden da yake taimakon mahaifin sa ma a wurinsa. Sannan kuma an sahale masa shiga babbar Ma'ajiyar adana litattafai ta qasar Bukhara. Wanda hakan, dai-dai yake da bashi lasisin qara fadada ilimi ta hanyar karanta manyan littattafan ilimi. Koda yake ance babu jimawa dakin adana littattafan ya qone da wuta, abinda ya janyo wasu maqiyan Ibn sina suka zargeshi da qona wajen domin wai kada asan inda yake samo ilimansa.
To. Allah dai shi yasan gaibu. Amma a kwana a tashi, sai lamura suka sauyawa ibn sina. Na farko dai mahaifinsa kuma abin qaunarsa ya rasu, na biyu kuma sojojin turkiya sun cinye daular samanidiyya da yaqi. Wannan yasa Ibn sina barin gari tare da shiga fagafniya, yau yana wancan gari, gobe yana wani. Yana zaga garuruwa yana aiwatar da sana'ar sa ta likitanci, yana kuma karantar da dalibai ilimin falsafa dana warkar da marasa lafiya.
Ance a irin haka sai daya zagaya garuruwan Ganganji, khwarazm, Rayy, Hamadan da Isfahan. A garin hamadan ne akace sarkin garin mai suna shams al Dawlah ya nada shi bafadensa kuma likitan sa, amma daga bisani aka kai masa gulmar cewa ibn sina tsohon bafaden Nuh ibn mansur ne wanda yake maqiyi ne a gareshi, sai kawai ya koreshi daga garin.
Sai dai ance Ibn sina bai bar garin hamdan ba, asali ma boyewa yayi a gidan wani mai bada magunguna saboda a lokacin yana kan ganiyar rubutun littafin kitabusshifa da qanun fid dibbi, littattafan da har yau ake amfani dasu a fannin likitanci. Babu jimawa ibn sina ya aikawa sarkin isfahan takarda, yana neman izinin zama a garinsa, sarkin da yake abokin gava ne ga Sarki Shams ad daulah na hamdan. Amma ance cikin rashin sa'a sarkin hamdan ya samu wannan labari, ya kuma samu labarin maboyar ibn sina. Don haka ya bada umarnin a kameshi a daure a kurkuku.
Allah cikin ikonsa, ibn sina bai wanzu cikin kurkukun ba akace yayi bad-da-bami da shigar sufaye, ya gudu daga kurkukun, inda ya tsallaka zuwa garin Isfahan. A wannan garin ne kuma ya samu nutsuwa tare da karimci, harma ya cigaba da rubuce-rubucen sa.
Masana tarihi sun ce Iman ibn sina ya rubuta littattafai na ilimi kimanin guda 450 a tsawon rayuwarsa. Amma guda 240 ne kachal suka kubuta, ragowar sun salwanta. Daga cikin wadanda suka tsiran kuma, ance littattafai 150 sun qunshi ilimin likitanci ne, sauran 90 din kuwa suna dauke da iliman lissafi, dabara, kimiyyar sararin samaniya, luggar larabci, falsafa, kide-kide da sauransu.
Falsafar Ibn sina jajirtatta ce wajen nunawa duniya wanzuwa da buwayar Allah madaukakin sarki. Duk da dai bayan rasuwar sa, Imam Ghazali ya nazarci littattafan falsafar tasa, ya kuma samar da ilimin falsafar sa wanda yake sabanin na ibn sina. Ance ma ko alokacin rayuwar ibn sina, ya rinqa haduwa da sabanin fahimta daga manyan malaman musulunci na lokacin, tunda ance a wajajen shekara ta 1022, ibn sina ya rinqa amsar takardun tambayoyi na qalubale daga masanin lissafi da falsafa na musulunci mai suna Imam Al-Biruni.
Amma dai, a fannin likitanci, Allah ya hore masa ilimi. Wanda takai ga bashi da tamka aduk duniya a wancan lokaci. Ance yana da matuqar hikima wajen gane cuta da warkar da maralafiya. Shine ma aka taba ruwaito wata qissa tasa mai cewa "wata rana yariman farisa bashi da lafiya, cutar damuwa ta kamashi. Har ya fita daga hankalinsa, yana fadawa mutane cewa shi saniya ne, azo da wuqa a yankashi aci nama mai dadi. Yana kuka 'mooo, mooo, mooo' kamar na shanu. Sai sarkin farisa ya aikawa Ibn sina yazo yayi masa magani. Ance tun kafin yazo ya aiko a sanar da marar lafiyar cewa Ibn sina mahauci ne, zaizo kuma da wuqa ya yanka shi, don haka ya kwantar da hankalinsa. Ai kuwa yarima dajin haka sai murna, ya shiga zaquwar isowar Ibn sina.
A ranar da ibn sina ya qaraso, sai ya zare wuqa, ya wasata a qasa, sannan ya rinqa cewa 'ina saniyar take? Ga mai yankata ya qaraso' sai ya yarima ya rinqa gurnanin shanu 'mooo, moooo, mooo' da qarfi domin ya sanar da Ibn sina inda yake kwance.
Ibn sina yana zuwa wurin yariman, sai ya taba shi sannan yace ' kai! Ai kuwa wannan saniyar bata shirya a yankata ba. Idan tana son yanka, dole sai taci abinci. Tayi qiba, ta kuma sha magani'. Cikin zumudi yarima ya rinqa karbar abinci da magani, har daga bisani hankalinsa ya dawo, lafiyarsa kuma ta inganta. (Littafin The Art of Talking cure na Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo ya tattaro wadannan hikimomi ga jami'an lafiya).
A qarshen rayuwar Ibn Sina, ance dakarun Sarkin Isfahan sun samu nasarar karbe iko da garin Hamdan, don haka ibn sina yayi niyyar koma wa garin da zama, amma sai ya hadu da matsanancin ciwon ciki, daqyar ya qarasa hamdan. Wasu sunce guba aka zuba masa a abinci, wasu kuma sun tafi akan lalura ce ta ajali.
Koma dai ya abin yake, ibn Sina yayi hasashen mutuwarsa alokacin, don haka yaqi shan magani, ya koma ga Allah. Ance abokansa sun rinqa yi masa nasiha ta yabi a sannu yayi magani, amma sai ya nusar dasu ilimin sa na ruhi, gangar jiki da mutuwa. Saboda a iya abin daya sani, ya gamsu Da cewa idan jiki yayi rauni, tilas ruhi ke barin gangar jiki don komawa ga duniyar ruhina, abinda ke sanadiyar Rasuwar dan adam. Har ma yake ce musu "Nafi qaunar gajeriyar rayuwa mai fadi akan siririyar rayuwa mai tsayi"
A qarshe dai, Ibn Sina ya rarraba dukiyar sa ga matalauta, ya 'yantar da bayinsa, sannan ya shiga tilawar Alqur'ani dare da rana, yana saukewa duk bayan kwana uku, har lokacin rasuwarsa a watan Ramadan na shekarar 1037.
Ibn Sina shahararren masani ne, mai koyarwa don Allah. Rashin sa ya jefa duniya cikin duhu, donma Allah ya taimaka ya rubuta wasu daga cikin ilimansa. Alokacin rayuwarsa, ana masa laqabi da Bu Ali sina, Sharaf Al mulk, Hujjatul Haqq da kuma Sheikul Ra'iyss.
Ga kadan daga littattafan daya rubuta;
1. Mi'iyar Al'Aaaqd Ibn sina
2. Risala fi ibtal ahkamul Nujoom
3. Hikmat Al-mashriqiyya
4. Sirat al shiykh Ra'is
5. Al isharat wa Al- Tanbihat
6. Danishnama'I Ala'I
7. Risala fi Sirril qadar
8. Kitab Al najat
9. Hayy Ibn yaqdhan
Da sausansu.
Da fatan Allah ya gafarta masa. Amin
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Tuna Baya: TARIHIN MASARAUTAR KANEM-BORNO KAMMALALLE


Tuna Baya:
TARIHIN MASARAUTAR KANEM-BORNO KAMMALALLE.
16-May-2016

Daga SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO

AGISYMBA, wani yanki ne daya fito daga bakin shahararren masanin kimiyya da falsafa dan kasar Girka mai suna Ptolemy, wanda kuma ya rayu a garin Alekzandariya a wajejen shekaru 100 bayan wafatin Annabi Isa (A.S) daga qasa zuwa sama.
A cewar ptolemy, agisymba wani gari ne dayake dauke da manyan dabbobi misalin giwaye da manyan Kangaru, tare da manya-manyan tsaunika, kuma garin yana kudu da garin Fezzan (dake libya a yanzu) da nisan tafiyar watanni hudu kacal.
Ance Ptolemy ya samu wannan labari ne daga hannun wani masanin girma da fadin duniya mai suna Manus. Shikuma Manus shine wanda tun alokacin ya bayyana cewa kusurwowin duniya guda hudu ne: Garin Thule (dake norway a yau) shine qarshen duniya a yamma, sai kuma yankin Agisymba wanda yake qarshen duniya a gabas. Sai tsibirin kanari (Cannaries) (wanda yake a qasar spain) ya zama qarshen duniya ta arewa, yayin da garin Shera (china kenan) yake a matsayin qarshen duniya ta kudu.
Shikuwa Manus, kamar yadda aka ruwaito, ya samu wannan labari ne daga bakin matafiya dake karadawa sassan duniya tare da binciken sa ga tsofaffun takardu wadanda masanan da suka gabace shi suka gabata.
Wannan gari na Agisymba, ance ya bace, ko kuma an daina jin duriyar sa har izuwa shekara ta 700 bayan wafatin Annabi Isa (A.S). Inda akace anji labarin wata masarauta mai suna KANEM- wadda akace ta kafu a wani gari da ake kira Manan, sunan zuriyar (qabilar) dake mulkinta shine DUGUWA (wadansu kuma na cewa Zhagawa), yaren da suke yarawa kuwa sunan sa KANEMBOU, yaren da ake tsammanin ya samo asali ne daga qabilar SAO. Qabilar da akace sune usulin mazauna yankin daga baya suka rarrabu izuwa al'ummatai daban-daban misalin kotoko, budumu, gamergu, da kanembou. Ita kuwa qabilar Sao, wasu na jita-jitar cewa tsatso ne na jikokin Hyksos, wani jarumi wanda ya kafa tsohuwar daular egypt daruruwan shekaru da suka gabata. Daga baya wannan masarauta ta sauya sheqa izuwa garin N'jima (ma'anar wannan suna a yaren Tedaga, (Teda, Tebu, Toubou' duk sunan yaren ne) wanda wani yanki acikin ala'ummar kudancin Fezzen ke yarawa shine 'KUDU')
Dier Lange, a littafinsa mai suna 'The founding of kanem by Assyrian Refugees ca 600BC' yayi kokari matuqa wajen wassafou fahimtarsa bisa alaqar kafuwar daular Kanem daga larabawan syria. Inda ya bayar da tarihin Sarkin masarautar na farko mai suna Sef da mahaifiyarsa Aisa wadda yace ta haife shine a garin Baghadada, daga baya rikice-rikice suka auku a masarautar wanda yasa Sef din ya jagoranci tawaga suka baro garin. Sannan kuma acewarsa, a wancan lokacin, Yankin Kanem Alqarya ce babba. Har ma ya qara da cewa littafin tarihin da mai binciken tarihi dan qasar jamus Heinrich Barth ya gano a shekarar 1851 mai suna Girgam wanda yake dauke da sunayen sarakunan kanem goma sha hudu na farko, ya samo asali ne daga kalmar 'Girginakku', wadda ake fassarata da yaren Akkadian (tsohon yaren Masarautar Syria) da "Akwatin takardu".
A fahimtar mu, wannan yanki yana dauke da mutane shekaru dubunnai da suka gabata, sai dai tarihin su ya bace tayadda bamu samu labarin yadda rayuwa takasance musu ba, kawai dai abinda tarihi ya nuna shine qabilar duguwa(zhagawa) wadanda ainihinsu makiyaya ne, sun yi shawarar tsayawa da yawace-yawacen kiwo gami da samar da gari nasu na kansu a wani lokaci wajajen shekaru 600 bayan wafatin Annabi Isa (A.S) (dai-dai da shekaru 32 kafin Annabi Muhammad S.a.w yayi wafati), don haka zuwan larabawan syria yankin wataqila shine yayi silar fito da wurin. Kuma kasancewar sunayen Sarakunan6 kanem na farko wadanda ake kira da 'magumi' ake kuma yi musu laqabi da 'mai' (ma'ana Sarki) kamar yadda yazo a kundin tarihin masarautar watau 'Girgam', yayi kamanceceniya da sunayen mutanen syria, zaifi kyau mu amince da zuwan su wannan yanki na agisymba kamar yadda tsohon sunansa yake.
Sai dai kuma akwai sabanin masana tarihi akan ainihin abinda ya faru a lokacin da Siriyawa suka qaraso wannan yanki. Shin kafa garinsu sukayi na daban, wanda daga bisani suka cinye garuruwan dake kusanci dasu da yaqi har suka maida garin daukakakke? Ko kuwa gari suka fara risqa sannan suka karbe ikon garin daga hannun masu mulkinsa?
Abinda tarihi dai ya tabbatar shine, Sarki Sef dan qabilar duguwa (zhagawa) shine sarki na farko da aka fara rubutawa a matsayin sarkin masarutar Kanem. Yayi sarautarsa a wajajen shekara ta 700, daga nan sai Ibrahim wanda ya fara mulki a shekara ta 740, sai Dugu a amshi mulki a shekarata 785 , daga nan sai Fune 835, sai Arsu a 893, sai Katur a 942, sai Buyuma a 961, sai Bulu a 1091, sai Arku a 1035, sai Shu a 1077, sai Selma (Abdal Djahl) wanda akace shine musulmi na farko, ya hau mulki a shekara ta 1081, wannan kuma shine yakawo qarshen mulkin sarakunan Duguwa (Zhagawa) akan mulkin masarautar kanem.
Domin ance a shekarar 1085 ne 'Mai Humme' ya qwace mulki, shine mafarin fara mulkin zuriyar Saifawa wadanda akewa sarakunan su laqabi da 'Mai', zuriyarda saida ta shafe kusan shekaru 700 tana tafiyar da mulkin masarautar. Ance a lokacin mulkinsa ne musulunci ya warwatsu a masarautar kanemi, aka giggina masallatai da yawa da wuraren daukar darasu. Wannan abu sai ya batawa wani yanki na tshohuwar qabilar Zhagawa rai, suka qi karbar musulunci. Daga bisani ma sai suka tashi daga garin sukayi gabas can wajajen Tafkin Chadi. Acan ne sukayi qarfi suka kuma fara kawo hari masarautar kanem. Wannan shine asalin qabilar Bulala da zhagawa kashi na biyu wadanda suka bar masarautar su ta gado, kuma shine asalin duk wata rigima data addabi wannan masarauta.
A shekarata 1210 ne Mai Dunama Dibbalemi ya amshi mulki. Shine sarkin daya fara qaddamar da yaqin jihadi don yada addinin musulunci ga sarakunan dake kewaye dashi. Sannan ya nemi kafa alaqar kasuwanci da qasashen larabawa, harma da gina Masaukin Alhazansa a garin Alqahira.
Wannan sarki ya kafa tarihi matuqa a masarautar Kanem. Domin ance shine wanda ya karya dodon tsafi mai sina 'MUNE', wanda maguzawan zhagawa ke bautawa, ya hana mutane bauta masa, sannan ya kira al'ummatai izuwa musulunci. Sai kuma shekarar 1473 inda Ali Gajideni ya amshi mulki. Shikuwa Gajideni, shine sarkin daya harhada kawunnan qabilun borno bayan yaqi ya rabasu gida biyu. Sannan ya yaqi kabilar Bulala, wadda take zuriya ce tsatson Zhagawa masu yaqi da masarautar borno. Sannan kuma shine sarkin daya dauke cibiyar masarauta daga yankin Kanem izuwa yankin Borno, ya koma wani gari mai suna Ngazargamu da mulki. Sai kuma Idris Katakarmabe ya hau mulki a shekarar 1507, wanda akace shine ya qarasa cinye qabilar Bulala da yaqi, ya koresu, tilas suka gudu gabashin borno da rayuwa har kuma ya maishe da fadar sa izuwa tsohon garin da masarautar ta kafu watau N'jemi na wucin gadi.
Abinda ya kamata makaranta su sani shine, yaqe-yaqe da hare-hare sun rinqa aukuwa daga qabilar zaghawa izuwa garuruwan masarautar kanem. Masana tarihi ma irinsu Ibn Yaqub sun ruwaito cewa a jerin wadannan Yaqe-yaqe sai da zaghawa suka kashe sarakunan kanem guda biyar daga cikin shidda wadanda suka yi mulki daga shekara ta 1386- izuwa shekarata 1400, wadanda kuma suka fito daga gidan sarautar Saifawa. Don haka awannan lokaci, yaqi ne da yayi zafi a inda qabilar 'Bulala' ta cinye garin n'jimi da yaqi, sai hakan ya tursasa qabilar sayfawa barin N'jimi dake Qasar kanem izuwa garin Ngazargamu dake qasar Borno .
Abu na gaba shine hawan Idris Alauma mulki a wajajen shakara ta 1580 (wasu sukace 1571). Wannan abu ya janyowa masarautar Borno girma da kwarjini a duniya ma baki daya. Ance wannan sarki yayi yaqoqi sama da dubu, ya kuma samu nasara a kusan yakuna dari hudu kamar yadda akace an samu tarihin yaqin sa wata tsohuwar waqa da akayi masa da kuma littafin 'Ghazawat Bornu' (yaqoqin bornu) wanda akace shugaban malaman sa mai suna Ibn Furtu ya rubuta. Ance Mai Alauma ya fadada girman masarautar borno, domin ya cinye kano a yamma, ya cinye wani yanki na garin Fezzan arewa, ya cinye Outara a yamma, ya kuma cinye garuruwan Zhagawa a gabas. Alokacin sane kuma masarautar Ottoman ta turo da wakilanta qasar borno don qarfafa danganta tsakanin masarautun biyu.
Haqiqa Sarki alouma yayi aiki matuqa ta hanyar sakewa dakarun yaqin sa fasali, inda ya samar musu da dabaru kala-kala, yasa aka giggina musu manyan jiragen ruwa na yaqi, tare da samar musu da dumbin makamai.
Daga nan kuma sunayen sarakunan borno sun qara bacewa a tarihi, har zuwa wajajen shekara ta 1780 inda akaji labarin Ahmad Alimi akan gadon sarauta, wanda akace ya runqa fuskantar hare-hare daga Fulani mabiya Usman bn Fodio. Sannan daga bisani akace dansa Dunama IX Lefiagi ne ke mulkin masarautar. A shekarar 1809 ne Muhammad Ngilerumma ya amshi mulki, wanda bai dade ba sai Muhammadul Aminu Al-Kanemi wanda yake tsatson qabilar Kanem ya amshi mulki, wanda hakan shine usulin fara mulkin Shehunnai (Sarakuna masu laqabin Shehu) har izuwa yau.
Ance usulin karbar mulkin muhammadul Amin El-Kanemi shine, Sarki Dunama ne ya gayyato shi a matsayinsa na jarumi kuma malami domin ya taimaka a cinye Fulani da yaqi. Alokacin ma har wani bafillatani mai suna mallam zaki ya jagoranci tawaga an qone babban birnin Borno mai suna Ngazargamu da yaqi. Mahaifin el-kanemi ummaru, ya kasance dan qabilar kanem ne, mahaifiyarsa kuwa balarabiyar libya ce daga qabilar Toureg, kuma ya taso ne acikin ilimi.
Don haka da yazo, sai yayi wasu tsare-tsare tare da samar da sulhu. Wannan kuma sai ya bashi farin jini, sarki Dunama ya bashi kyaututtuka gami da lambar yabo ta 'Sheikh'. Daga baya kuma al'umma suka ce sunfi sonsa ya zamo sarki. Har wasu sukace sa'ar daya zamo sarki, ya caccaki Usman dan fodio da dansa Muhammad bello a wasu takardu daya rinqa turawa sokoto, bisa yadda zasu yaqi masarautar da sama da shekaru dari takwas take kan turbar musulunci. Sannan kuma a shekarar 1814, shehun borno Muhammadu el-kanemi ya mayarda fadar borno izuwa garin kukawa.
A shekara ta 1837, bayan rasuwar Muhammadul Amin, sai dansa Ummaru ya hau karaga, daga nan aka fara kiransa da shehun borno Ummaru dan Muhammadul Amin. Yayi mulkinsa har izuwa lokacin rasuwar sa a shekara ta 1881 inda kuma qarfin masarautar ya fara raguwa, shine kuma dansa Shehun borno Bukar kuka ya amshi mulki. A wannan lokaci ance tattalin arziqin borno ya karye, tilas Bukar kuka ya sanyawa mabiyansa haraji, abinda ake kira 'Kumoreji' da yaren kanuri.
A shekara ta 1885, dan uwan Bukar kura mai suna ibrahim kura ya gajeshi. A lokacin sane kuma ya Rabeh (Rabih Az-zubair) ya dirkako wa masarautar borno da yaqi, ya kuma rinqa samun nasara akan shehun borno ibrahim kura (Hashimi), don haka shekarar 1893 dan uwan ibrahim kura mai suna kyari ya kashe shi a garin maganwa, sannan ya hau mulki. Ba ajima ba Rabeh ya kori shehu Kyari daga kukawa, ya qwace garin. Wannan yasa Kyari ya shirya don qwato garinsa, amma a rashin sa'a dayazo yaqin sai Rabeh ya cishi da yaqi harma ya kame shi. Ance kalmomin daya fada na qarshen rayuwarsa kafin Rabeh ya hallakashi sune "ku fadawa wannan wulaqantaccen bawa, idan da nine na kame shi, ba abinda zan tambayeshi, kasheshi zanyi. Dan haka ya daina mini tambayoyi, idan yana da wani abu kurum yayi..''
Bayan Rabeh ya kashe kyari a shekara ta 1894, sai Sanda Wuduroma ya karbi mulki. Shima dai bai jima ba akace wani dakare mai suna Gadum, daka cikin dakarun Rabeh ya hallaka shi a wani wuri da ake kira Wuduro. Shine sai Abubakar Garbai ya gajeshi. A shekarar 1922 ne kuma ya mutu, sai sanda kura ya gajeshi har izuwa 1937 inda sanda Kyarimi ya gajeshi har zuwa 1967, sannan Umar ibn Abubakar Garbai ya hau mulki. Shima dai a shekarata 1974 ya mutu, sai mustafa ibn Umar Garbai Alkanemi ya hau mulki wanda Allah yayiwa rasuwa a shekarar 2009. Wannan ne ya kawo hawan mulkin Abubakar Ibn Umar Garbai Alkanemi wanda yake kan mulki har zuwa yau..
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DIDDIGIN ISAR HAUSAWA GWANJA DA KURMI

Diddigin Isar Hausawa Gwanja da Kurmi

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
08060869978

Da Bukar Mada
08021218337

Cinikayyar Goro wata abar tunawa ce a tarihin k'asar Hausa. Domin kuwa abisa al'ada, kowacce al'umma tana ware wani abu muhimmi mai daraja domin yin musanyar cinikayya a matsayin Haja tun kafin a samar da kudade.

Tarihi ya nuna cewa ba'a bar kasar hausa a baya ba a wannan fage, domin kuwa al'ummatan zamanin daya gabace mu sun yi riko da Bayi, Gishiri, Wuri, Azurfa, Zinare da Goro duk a bisa irin wancan matsayi na musaya a fannin cinikayya da sigar mallakar abubuwa.

Watakila, wannan ne yasa hausawa na wancan lokacin suka bazama neman wadancan abubuwa masu daraja. Tarihi ya nuna an samu garuruwa da dama da suka kafu saboda zuwan mutane hak'ar zinare a yankunan, haka kuma labarin yadda hausawa ke tafiya fataucin bayi, gishiri duk sananne ne izuwa duk inda suka san zasu samu kayayyakin. A irin haka muke kyautata tsammanin bahaushe ya fara riskar yankunan da ake noman goro domin fataucinsa a nasa yankin.
Duk da kasancewar babu takaimaimen lokacin da bahaushe ya fara zuwa wancan wuri, ko kuma sunan bahaushen daya fara dillancin goro, amma dai sanannen abu ne cewa turbar kasuwanci ta kafu a wuraren k'arni na takwas tsakanin garin Gwanja inda ake noman goro izuwa hamshak'iyar masarautar Kanem dake Borno.

Marubucin littafin Kitab Al-buldan mai suna Al'yaqubi bayan yawace-yawacen sa dayayi a kusa da wannan yankin, ya ruwaito a shekarar 872-873 cewa "akwai wata masarauta awani wuri dake tsakanin masarautar kanem da tafkin kwara (dai-dai da ko kuma kusa da inda kano take a yanzu), mai suna 'HBSH'. Sunan mai mulkinta 'MRH' sunan birnin ta 'ThBYR'. zuwa yanzu, da yawan masana sunfi gaskata cewar hausawa Al-Yakubi yake nufi a matsayin mazauna yankin.
Shi kuwa Goro, cinsa akeyi.

 Kasancewar sa abu mai daraja na wancan lokacin, an jiyo canfe-canfe da dama akansa. Wasu ma na ganin cewar mahalicci ya zabe shi ne sama da sauran 'ya'yan itaciya, don haka... 

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ASALIN KALMAR NAMASTE

Kalmar namaste, ta samo asakine misalin shekaru dubu hudu (4,000 years) da suka gabata, locacin da shrishri Ram yake Dan yaro ( Shshri Krishna).

Watarana Shshri Krishna yaje yawo gona sai yaga wasu yan mata yan misalin shekaru takwas takwas suna wanka a rafi, ganin haka sai ya kwashe kayansu gaba daya ya hau saman bishiya yana kallon su. Koda gama wankan su a rafi keda wuya suka nema kayan sawansu suka rasa, hakan yasa Shshri Krrishna yayi musu fito cewa ga kayan nasu awajanshi kuma bazai basuba sai sunyi mai bauta ta musamman.

Hakan yasa wayannan yara suka fara faduwa kasa suna hada hanna yansu suna cewa " nima nima namaste " ma'ana muntuba muna masu yima mubaya'a (bauta) a gareka. 

Tundaga wannan lokacin wannan kalmar tasamo asali a India, wacce har yanzu suna anfani da ita wajan bauta mai.
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BINCIKE A LUPUR

BINCIKE A LUPUR, TSOFFIN TSAUNIKAN DA MAGUZAWA SUKA TAƁA KAFA DAULA.
DAGA
SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Lupur, wani ɗan ƙauye ne dake daura da sabon garin Rano, koda yake ana iya cewa manyan tsaunikan nan masu tarihi ne suka raba ƙauyen da garin na Rano, watau duwatsun Ƙurƙubu, Ƙurgum, Damusu, da Mairamu.
Manyan ababen ƙayatarwa a ƙauyen sune duwatsun Jidal da kuma Tsiriri dake can ƙurya dashi, dukkaninsu kuwa suna da tsohon tarihi.
Don haka sai na yanke shawarar ziyartar gani da ido zuwa garin.
Kafin zuwana, na saurari labaru kala-kala game da waɗancan tsaunika. Daga ciki akwai masu cewa Fadar sarakunan farko na maguzawa na cikin tsaunikan Lupur ne, akwai koguna masu duhu da kuma ababen tsoratarwa aciki.
Ibrahim Haladu, shine matashin daya amince yayi mini rakiya zuwa cikin surƙuƙin waɗannan duwatsu. Haka kuma mahaifinsa Mallam Haladu tsoho ne, masanin tarihin wannan yanki, wanda har Maimartaba Sarkin Rano kan aiko mutane gareshi domin jin abinda ya sani game da tarihin tsohuwar Rano.
Bayan mun gusa nesa da gari, sai gamu daf da sashen ganuwa ginin dutse, wajen ya zama gomaki amma dai ana iya ganin ɓurɓushin duwatsu da akayi alamomi dasu tun abaya, muna tsallakata kuwa sai yace mini yanzu mun shigo asalin garin daya fara kafuwa kafin komawa Rano.
Wurin kewaye yake da manyan tsaunikan can dana faɗa a sama, watau Ƙurƙubu, Mairamu, Ƙurgum, Damusu, da wasunsu, amma Jidal da Tsiriri na can ciki.
A saman waɗannan duwatsun na hango birrai farare suna ta kaikawo, shigen jikinsu yaso yayi kama dana kyanwa. Ɗan rakiya ta yace mini sun fito shan ɗorawa ne, kuma sun saba ganinsu suna fitowa gungu-gungu. Wani sa'ilin ma har ƙasa suke saukowa takalar faɗa.
Ibrahim ya nuna mini gonakinsu a ƙasan waɗannan duwatsu, kuma ya sanar mini cewa birrai na zuwa suyi musu ɓarna lokaci zuwa lokaci.
Da muka yi gaba daga nan, akwai wani sashen gini da aka nuna mini na duwatsu. Wajen ance tsohuwar fada ce, mai ɗauke da zauruka da manyan ɗakuna, har ma da inda ake zama don yin fadanci.
Ban samu labarin sunayen sarakunan da sukayi mulki acikin wannan fada ba, amma dai ance mini wannan waje ya girmewa tsohon garin Rano dake can tsallaken duwatsun, inda shima ake iya ganin sashen gini na ƙasa da sarakunan zamanin suka rayu a ciki.
Sai dai kuma ana tsammanin sai da wayewa ta zowa waɗannan maguzawa sannan suka sauko daga kan tsaunika tare da soma yin bukkoki a dandamarin ƙasa. A zamanin ance Sarki kaɗai ake ginawa gida da duwatsu.
Babu kuma takamaimen bayani game da hanyar zaɓen shugaba a wancan tsohon zamani, amma dai kamar yadda aka sani, bata wuce gado ko kuma fin ƙarfi.
Daga can ƙurya kuma akwai sashen ƙofofin shiga gari masu suna ƙofar Ƙahu da Ƙofar Bezo, ance mutanen da suka zauna a wurin sun samar dasu ne domin sanya ƙarin tsaro kafin a riski inda suke.
Baya da nan kuma sai wani babban dandali, inda aka asanar mini cewa ainihin wajen matattara ce, kasancewar akwai mutane zazzaune a kusan kafatanin tsaunikan, don haka suna samun lokacin da suke haɗuwa don yin bautar gumakansu misalin gunki Darmo, har ma da yin wasanni.
Daga wasannanin da akace suna yi baya da kaɗe-kaɗe da raye raye irin na maguzanci, akwai wasan Ƙwado da ayanzu akafi sanin mata dashi. Don haka har yanzu ana iya ganin wani dutse da suka ƙwaƙule, suka yi masa ramuka kamar tandarun waina, wanda suke wasan ƙwado a kanshi.
Ance wani sarkin Rano ya taɓa zuwa ya umarci a haƙe shi a mayar dashi inda masarautarsa take, amma duk tsawon haƙan da akayi sai dai aga dutsen na ƙara zurfi, daga ƙarshe sai aka haƙura ba tare da angano cibiyarsa ba.
A gefe ɗaya kuma akwai tsaunikan Tsiriri da Jidal waɗanda ana iya cewa sune sukayiwa wannan farfajiya ƙawanya.
Shi tsaunin Tsiriri anan ne kogo yake, watau inda Zamna Kogo ya samo asali, inda akace anan ainihin maguzawan suka rinƙa zama tare da iyalansu.
Na samu hawa saman tsaunin tare da shiga kogon, na ganshi da faɗi, da kuma duwatsun zama barbaje a ciki, harda wani faffaɗa da akace anan shugabansu yake. Sai kuma wasu lunguna da suke sadarwa izuwa gareshi..
Akwai kuma wata rijiya mai suna Kurfafiya a saman tsaunin wadda ruwa mai haske yake tsatsowa daga tsakankanin duwatsu, wadda kuma akace tarihi ya nuna cewar daga gareta mazauna duwatsun ke samun ruwansha, haka kuma bata taɓa ƙafewa ba.
Ance maguzawan da suka rayu a wajen basa sanya tufafi, sai dai su rufe tsiraicinsu da ganyaye.
Haka kuma farautar namun daji ce babbar sana'ar su, gasu karfafa, don haka suna yawan fita yaƙi ga maƙwabtan birane, suma kuma ana yawan kawo yaƙi izuwa garesu.
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TUNAWA DA YAƘIN SANTOLO

TUNAWA DA YAKIN SANTOLO
(YAKI DON TABBATAR DA MUSULUNCI A KASAR HAUSA)
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO, RN.
08060869978
Hakika, idan har Tarihin kasar hausa bazai cika ba sai an kalli tarihin kano, to haka ma tarihin kano da zuwan musulunci kano bazai taɓa kammaluwa ba har sai an sanya wani yanki na Santolo.
Santolo tsohuwar daular hausawa ce, tsohuwar masarauta ce wadda salsalar ta take tukewa da salsalar asalin hausawa.
A cikin zantuka masu yawa na maruwaitan tarihin kano, an gamsu cewar wani mai suna 'Dala' shine wanda ya soma zama akan dutsen da ayau ake kira dutsen Dala, a wajajen shekara ta 700 miladiyya, tun a wancan lokacin kuma wasu na ganin akwai mutane dake rayuwa a gefa da kuma kan wani dutse mai suna 'santolo', wanda kuma da alama, sunan ya samo asali ne daga mutumin daya soma rayuwa a saman dutsen.
Zuwa yanzu, babu takamaimen tarihin asalin kafuwar santolo, sannan kuma yana da wuya a iya lissafa tsawon zamanin da mutane suka soma rayuwa akan dutsen santolo, to amma tarihi ya auna cewar mazauna Santolo dana Dala dake kano suna da alaka kodai ta jinsi, ko ta addini ko kuma ta duka gaba ɗaya, tunda har ma an samu cewa acan baya alakar kasuwanci na shiga tsakanin mazauna waɗannan duwatsu biyu. Wasu kuma na ganin Santolo tayi shaharar da har daga Borno ake zuwa yin fatauci a koma, to amma daga baya sai Allah ya fifita Dala sama da ita Santolon.
Babban abin tunawa dangane da Santolo shine 'Yakin Santolo' wanda aka gwabza tsakanin Sarkin Kano Ali Yaji ɗan Tsamiya da kuma shugaban Santolo mai lak'abin 'Magajin Santolo' wanda ya karɓi bakuncin takwaransa 'magajin Dala' bayan sarki Ali ya karya tsumburbura dake saman dutsen dala ya kuma kori Magajin Dala da mutanensa.
Tarihi ya nuna cewa asalin garin Kano ya faro ne daga dutsen dala, inda ake bautar gunkin wata aljanna mai suna 'tsumburbura' dake saman dutsen, amma daga baya maɗatai ta kafu, har Bagauda yazo ya soma sarautar ɗaukacin yankunan maɗatai dana yankin dala, waɗanda suka haɗe da sunan kano.
Haka kuma, tsawon zamani a kano babu addinin musulunci, daga masu bautar tsunburbura karkashin ikon magajin dala (wanda yayi gadon Barbushe) sai kuma maguzawa waɗanda basa bautar komai irinsu Bagauda da salsalarsa dake sarautar kano.
A haka kano ta taho har akazo kan mulkin Sarki Ali yaji ɗan Tsamiya a wuraren shekara ta 1300-1380 miladiyya, wanda ya karɓi bakuncin kabilar fulani Wangarawa daga Kasar Mali, waɗanda suka kawo musulunci garin kamar yadda Marigayi Maje Ahmad Gwangwazo ya faɗa a littafinsa na tarihin kano da tarihin zuwan wangarawa birnin.
To, bayan sarki Ali Yaji ya karɓi addinin musulunci, sai kuma ya jagoranci karya gunkin tsunburbura tare da umartar masu bauta masa su dawo musulunci, amma sai sukace sam-sam ba zasu bar addinin kaka-da-kakan-nin suba suyi addinin dungure, don haka sai suka gudu izuwa Santolo domin cigaba da bautar da suka saba.
Wannan ne yasa sarki Ali Yaji ya shirya dakaru kimanin dubu bisa dawakai, ɗauke da takubba da kuma garkuwa ta bakin karfe, tare da gudunmiwar wangarawa suma kimanin ɗari biyu, suka dirarwa Santolo da yaki.
Watakila, Sarki Ali ya shirya wannan yakin ne domin ya samu labarin cewa Magajin Dala da Mutanen santolo zasu zo su yakeshi, ko kuma tana iya yiwuwa yayi ne kurum da niyyar hana bautar gumaka tare da tabbatar da addinin musulunci a sassan kano.
Amma dai ance a lokacin, sai mutanen santolo suka ɗare bisa dutsen na Santolo, suka rinka sakarwa dakarun Sarki Ali Yaji kibbau, har takai sun hana su kusantar dutsen.
To amma daga bksani, Sarki Yaji da dajarunsa sun samu galabar hawa kan dutsen tare da karkashe dakarun Santolo, ciki kuwa harda shugabansu Magajin Santolo.
Babu takamaimen bayanin ko magajin dala ya mutu a yakin ko kuma guduwa yayi daga baya ya mutu, to amma dai an samu cewar tun daga lokacin ya zamo musulunci ya samu karɓuwa a yankin, kuma tun daga nan ba a k'ara samun wasu mutane da suka yi bautar wani abu ba Allah ba akan wannan dutsen.
Dutsen Santolo gagarumi ne, faffaɗa da doro, tsayinsa ya tafi kamar hawan bene daga baya, daga gabansa kuwa goshi yayi mai faɗi da santsi, tsakiyarsa nada faɗi harma akwai koguna da akace dabbonin daji misalin su kyarkeci, dila da macizai ke rayuwa.
Koda yake, bamuji sunan gunki da aljanar dake saman dutsen santolo ba, amma har yanzu mutanen dake zagaye da wurin sun kiyaye cewar kakanninsu sun basu labarin cewar a zamanin da, ana taruwa ahau kan wannan dutse don neman wata biyan bukata.
Sannan kuma akwai wata rijiya zuzzurfa dake saman dutsen mai suna 'Rijiyar Giɗaɗo', wadda akan hana mutane zuwa kusa da ita saboda kuɓuta daga k'wank'waman dake wurin masu halaka mutane.
Zuwa yanzu garin santolo ya kasu biyu, akwai sabon garin santolo wanda kanawa (kabilar hausawa) ke ciki, sai kuma santolon fulani, amma dukkan su suna karkashin ikon dagaci mai suna Santolo Da'u.
Haka kuma dutsen yana nan a tskiyar kauyukan sabon garin santolo, santolon fulani, Madawa, Koɗe, kyarmawa, da Tsakuwa waɗanda dukkanin su suke cikin gundumar Dawakin Kudu ta Jihar Kano.
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Today In History


On This Day March9

1776 – The Wealth of Nations by Scottish political economist Adam Smith (bust pictured) was first published, becoming the first modern work in the field of economics.

1862 – American Civil War: In the world's first battle between two ironclad warships, USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fought to a draw near the mouth of Hampton Roads in Virginia.

1932 – Éamon de Valera, one of the dominant political figures in 20th-century Ireland, became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State.

1944 – World War II: As part of the Battle of Narva, the Soviet Air Forces heavily bombed Tallinn, Estonia, killing up to 800 people, mostly civilians.

2010 – The first legal U.S. same-sex marriages south of the Mason–Dixon line took place in Washington, D.C.



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