Showing posts with label Tarihi (History). Show all posts
Showing posts with label Tarihi (History). Show all posts

Saturday, 9 March 2019

Today In History


On This Day March9

1776 – The Wealth of Nations by Scottish political economist Adam Smith (bust pictured) was first published, becoming the first modern work in the field of economics.

1862 – American Civil War: In the world's first battle between two ironclad warships, USS Monitor and CSS Virginia fought to a draw near the mouth of Hampton Roads in Virginia.

1932 – Éamon de Valera, one of the dominant political figures in 20th-century Ireland, became President of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State.

1944 – World War II: As part of the Battle of Narva, the Soviet Air Forces heavily bombed Tallinn, Estonia, killing up to 800 people, mostly civilians.

2010 – The first legal U.S. same-sex marriages south of the Mason–Dixon line took place in Washington, D.C.



Tuesday, 1 January 2019

YADDA TURAWA SUKA Ƙwace Sokoto

YADDA TURAWA SUKA KWACE SOKOTO
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo, RN.


Turawa sun riski Arewa a zamnin Sarki Musulmi Abdurrahman ɗan Atiku.
Shikuwa Anyi masa mubaya'ar sarauta a gidan waziri Buhari ne bayan rasuwar Sarkin musulmi Ummaru, sannan ya taso daga Kauran Namoda ya nufi sokoto.
Akan hanyarsa ya sauka a Gora, ya aika cewar Sarkin Mafara yazo gareshi, sarkin mafara yace bazai iya zuwa ba saboda rashin lafiya, amma ga galadima nan ya amsa mubaya'a..
Sarkin musulmi yace baya amsar mubaya'ar galadima, sarkin yakeso yazo da kansa, amma sai sarkin Mafara yaki yaje.
Rannan bayan sarkin Musulmi Abdurrahman ya isa gida Sokoto, sai aka sake aikewa sarkin musulmi da cewar husuma ta auku tsakanin sarkin Mafara dana Burmi, har sarkin mafara ya kame Birnin Tudu dake ikon sarkin Burmi.
Sarkin musulmi ya aike zuwa Mafara cewa ya saki wannan gari indai ya tabbatar Birnin Tudu na sarkin Burmi ne, idan kuwa ba nashi bane to ya aiko da jawabi mai daɗi gareshi.
Sarkin Mafara ya aiko da cewar Birnin Tudu ba na sarkin Burmi bane, na Namai-barau ne, shikuwa nasa ne. Yanzu kuma Ibo ke ikon ta, shima kuma nasa ne.
Sarkin musulmi ya aike ga waɗannan sarakunan da cewa suyi sulhu a tsakanin su, amma sai sarkin Mafara yaki ya karɓi sulhu.
Sarkin musulmi ya aike da sako Mafara cewar matsawar sarkinsu bai karɓi sulhu ba, to yaki na zuwa daga gareshi.. Mutanen Sarkin Mafara suka haɗu da jakadan sarkin musulmi a wani wuri mai suna Rini suka harbeshi da kibiya, sannan sukace sun ɗauki faɗa da sarkin musulmi.
Sarkin musulmi ya aikewa Sarkin Anka wannan abu, amma shima sai aka tarar yana goyon bayan Sarkin Mafara ne.
Daga nan kuwa sai sarkin musulmi ya hori a buga tamburan yaki, yace mutanen Anka da Mafara sun zama abokan gaba, sannan ya aike da sarkin zamfara Ummaru ɗan Mahmudu gabas, yace ya rinka aikewa da hari mafara.
Ya kuma hori Sarkin Rafi Alhaji daya zauna a Magami ya kuntatawa mutanen muradun da hsre-hare.
Sannan ya aike jarumai domin su zauna tare da sarkin Burmi a Modocci don maganin harin da abokan adawa zasu iya kawowa.
Haka kuma ya umarci sarkin Sulluɓawa shuni daya rinka kai hare-hare ga Anka da Mafara babu sassautawa.
Yace da Magajin gari ya tafi Maru ya tara jarumai su tafi sukai hari ga Mafara.
Ya umarci sarkin Danko Ali yazo su haɗu a Laje don su kaiwa abokan adawa hari.
Da sarkin Mafara yaga haka, sai ya aike wa sarkin Gobir neman taimako. Sarkin Gobir Almu ya tashi da gagarumar runduna zuwa Mafara, suka tafi ga sarkin Burmi suka buka yaki har sau uku ana gwabzawa amma basu samu gagarumar nasara ba, anan nema aka halaka Bawa ɗan sarkin Mafara.
Daga nan sai sarkin musulmi ya aiki jarumai su tsare wababe, sannan yahau zuwa Mafara da yaki, ya buga yaki dasu da fari sannan ya koma gida.
Bayan ya komo gida sai mutanen Mafara suka saduda, suka aiko neman sulhu saboda kuntatar da akayi musu.
Sarkin musulmi yaki amsa musu, ya cigaba da shirin yaki abinsa.
Amma da suka matsu sai suka kori sarkinsu Buzu, suka aika da rawaninsa ga sarkin Burmi domin ya nemar musu sulhu da sarkin muslmi.
Da sarkin musulmi yaji abinda sukayi, sai yace indai da gaske ne suna son sulhu, to sai sabon sarkin da suka zaɓa ya zo gareshi.
Daga nan Sabon sarkin Mafara da sarkin zamfaran Anka suka taso izuwa ga sarkin musulmi suna masu neman amana, suka haɗu dashi a Gandi, yace su saki duk bayin da suka kama a yayin wannan rikici, sukace sunji zasuyi yadda duk yace.
Yace kuma bai yadda da amanar suba har sai sun bashi bayi dubu.
Sai da suka bashi kuwa sannan ya aminta dasu.
Sannan yace ya mayarwa sarkin Burmi birnin Tudu, suka ce sun yadda,.
Ya hori sarkin mafara da jama'ar sa duk su daina al'adar nan tasu ta ahi( atire) da aka sansu da ita, ya rarraba yankuna kuma ga sarakunanda suka taimakeshi a wannan yaki.
Ya baiwa Alhaji Maradun, ya raba wasu yankuna tsakanin sarkin Mafara Laje da Sarkin Danko Ali.
Bayan duk an kare wannan, sai ya shirya zuwa Argungu da yaki, yaje ya kai mata hari ya dawo gida.
Bayan ya dawo ya kai yaki Ruwan Bore ya kame waɗanda ke ciki, sannan ya sake shiryawa zuwa Argungu a kashi na biyu.
Bayan ya dawo dai, ya sake kaiwa Ruwan Bore da Argurgu hari a karo na uku.
Daga nan sai yaron turawa mai suna Adamu yazo masa. Yazo tare da yaron sarkin zazzau, da gaisuwa da hajoji da suka saba aikawa ga sarkin musulmi. Sarkin musulmi yaki amsar gaisuwarsu ya kuma koresu.
Daga baya sai aka shirya gyara da turawa, sarkin musulmi yaci gaba da karɓar gaisuwarsu.. Ana kan haka kuma sai ƙlabari yazo cewa turawa sun kone Nufe, sun cinyeta da yaki..
Koda sarkin musulmi yaji haka sai ya daina amsar gaisuwarsu. Amma kuma labarin ciye-ciyen garuruwa daga turawa ya zamo yanata karuwa a kullum.
A haka har sukaci Bauchi, sarkin Bauchi ya gudo zuwa kano.
Rannan bayan an kare Basasar Kano lokacin da waziri ya sauka a zariya sai kwatsam ga turawa sun dira da rundunar su ta yaki, suka ce sai a saki bayi duka, aka sakesu.
Suka tsare waziri a zazzau.
Suka sa dogarai biyu a kowacce kofa, amma akwai wata kofar da waziri ya sulale ya bar zazzau zuwa kano da ba susan da itaba, daga kano ya komo sokoto abinsa.
Sai Ya zamana zazzau ta fita daga ikon sarkin musulmi.
Sannan Gwamna Lugga ya aiko da wasika zuwa ga sarkin musulmi da Cewa:-
Bayan gaisuwa, Ka sani, idan shekara ta kewayo, zamu zo gareka, idan kana wurno zamu sauka a sokoto, idan kana sokoto kuwa zamu sauka a cikinta.
Sai sarkin musulmi ya juya takardar tasu ya maida jawabi da cewa
"La Haula Wala kuwwati Illa Billahi"
Ya aike musu dashi.
Sai dai bayan watanni 6 sai Allah yayi masa rasuwa, yana da shekaru 75 a duniya, yana kuma da shekaru 12 bisa mulki.
Kabarinsa na nan a Wurno.
Haka kuma Azamaninsa akayi basasar kano. Kuma a zamaninsa turawan Faransa suka kone Salame da dare, mutane suka firgita matuka.
Da fatan Allah yajikansa Amin.

Thursday, 22 November 2018

TARIHIN WALI ƊAN MASANI

TARIHIN WALI DAN MASANI
Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo, RN.
Sunan sa na yanka shine Abduljalil, amma anyi saɓani akan cikakken sunansa da kuma asalinsa.
A wani aulin ance shine Muhammadu ɗan Abdullahi ɗan Nuhu, babar-bare ga asali, bakatsine ga haihuwa. Shine shehun malami mai yawan sani, masanin furu'a, masanin nahawu, masanin lugga da balaga, uban Abdullahi.
Amma a wani aulin ance mahaifinsa Mallam Masani mutumin kasar Masar ne, larabawan futa-turo ne suka karɓo shi daga hannun mahaifinsa wanda yake wani babban malami ne acan masar ɗin suka zo dashi katsina. Su waɗannan larabawa, sun kasance idan zasu zo kasar Hausa fatauci daga masar, sai uban ɗan masani ya basu sa'a.
To shi wannan yaro ɗa ga Mallam masani shine ya shahara kwarai a katsina, kan sha'anin malanta har ya zamo mai ba sarkin katsina sa'a idan zai tafi yaki.
Ance wali ɗan Masani ya karantar da mutane ilimi sosai a Birnin katsina, ya rayu a karni na goma sha shidda, shine kuma akace ya raini shahararren masani Wali ɗan Marina wanda har daga baya akace jayayya ta ilimi ta taɓa wanzuwa a tsakaninsu.
Wali ɗan Masani ya rubuta wakokin Hausa da dama, dayawansu sun ɓace saboda rashin taskancewa tun tsawon zamani daya shuɗe, amma wadda aka samu a yanzu kuma ake kyautata zaton shiya rubutata itace wakar 'Yakin Badar', wadda akace a baya ta shahara a kano, inda manya da yara ke rerawa kwararo-kwararo.
Ita wakar tana magana ne akan yakin Badar wanda yake ɗaya daga yakokin da Manzon Allah (s.a.w) sukayi da sahabbansa domin tabbatuwar wannan addinin na musulunci.
Don haka, wakar tana bayyana yadda akayi gwagwarmaya da kafiran makkah a karkashin jagorancin Abu Safiyan da yadda musulmai 313 dake kafa, da guda 2 mahaya dawakai, da guda 70 mahaya rakuma sukayi nasara akan kafirai sama da 1000.
Har ila yau, Ita wakar tana sharhi ne akan abubuwan da suka faru game da yakin Badar ɗin. Ko da yake wasu abubuwan da aka ambata a yakin uhudu ne akayisu.
Wakar duka-dukanta baitoci 48 ne, 11 na farko suna nuna yabo ne ga Manzon Allah tsira da aminci su tabbata a gareshi wanda yazo da littafin Alkurani mai girma.
Sai kuma baitocin da suka biyo baya masu nuni da yadda rashin jituwa ya soma biyo baya tsakanin musulmai da kafiran makkah da yadda Abu Jahali ya aiki Siraka filin daga a inda ya tarar da mu'ujuzozin Annabi Muhammad (s.a.w.)
Ga kaɗan daga wannan wakar:-
1. Bismillahi Sunane na Allah Ta'ala,
Zani yabon Rasulullah, macecin mu bayi.
2. Nai haramar yabo da yawa, na duba da zurfi,
Gulbin mai ruwa tari, fito sai da jirgi.
3. Zani yabonka Gamzaki da kazo da haske,
Hasken naka nada yawa yana shafe rana.
11. Mutan Makkah sun murna da saukar fiyayye,
Amma sai da anka kara, takubba da masu.
12. Wani wawa Abu jahil dake basu karya,
Yace koway je wurin wan'in shina bashi 'yatai.
13. Anga Siraka yai gama da bai kai isa ba,
Ya kai goɗiya ta kafe wurin babu ramu.
15. Yai kara yai kuwwa yana "Ya fiyayye"
Annabi yaji kukanai, "kaje, babu komai"

Monday, 19 November 2018

BRIEF HISTORY OF NIGERIA

*BRIEF HISTORY OF CORRUPTION IN NIGERIA 🔰*

1. *1960-1966:* 
       Sir Abubakar Tafawa 
       Balewa- no public  
       funds stolen.

2. *1966*
       Major Gen. Aguyi
       Ironsi- no public 
       funds stolen.

3. *1966-1975:*
      Gen. Yakubu Gowon-
      little stealing of
      public funds began
      gradually.

4. *1975-1976:*
      Gen. Murtala    
      Muhammad- zero
      tolerance for
      corruption and
       indiscipline.

5. *1976-1979:*
      Gen. Olusegun  
      Obasanjo- Military
      egg heads started
      owning huge
      properties, oil Blocs
      running into Millions
      of dollars.

6. *1979-1983:*
      Alhaji Shehu Shagari-
      looting galore by
      Ministers, party
      functionaries and
      other government big
      wigs.

7. *1984-1985:*
      Major Gen.
      Muhammadu Buhari-
      zero tolerance for
      corruption and
      indiscipline.
      Some corrupt
      politicians bagged
      200 years jail terms.

8. *1985-1993:*
      Gen Ibrahim
      Babangida- freed all
      jailed politicians;
      liberalized the
      architecture.
      In one fell swoop
      about $12 Billion
      varnished.
      He is called the father
      of corruption.

9. *1993-1998:*
      Gen. Sani Abacha-
      over $25 Billion
       looted in four
       turbulent years.

10. *1998- 1999:*
        Gen. Abdulsalam
        Abubakar- about $2
        Billion looted in 11
        months.

11. *1999- 2007:*
        Chief Olusegun
        Obasanjo- His Bank
        account is said to
        have grown from
        N20,000 after
        leaving prison to
       Multi-Billion dollars
       with choice
       properties across
       major cities. $16
       Billion allegedly
       meant for electric
       power projects
       vanished. Another
       N300 Billion [$2b] for
       roads disappeared.

12. *2007-2010:*
        Alhaji Umar
        Yar'Adua- reserved
        and sick. Looted
        funds have not been
        traced to his regime.

13. *2011-2015:*
        Dr. Goodluck Ebelle
       Jonathan- in 2011
       elections about N2.6
       Trillion disappeared.

       Over $31Billion
       stolen in 2yrs.

       Another $2.6 Billion
       was stolen in 2015
       elections.

      More revelations on
      stolen public funds
      during his tenure are
      still emerging.

      His regime in terms
      of corruption cannot
      be described in
      words.

14. *2015 - date.* PMB.  
         Integrity, Zero
         tolerance for
         corruption, recovery
         of looted funds....

         This is why the
         enemies of the
         nation hate him.    
         Who is he to take
         away their rightful
         yams?

         May we never have
         Goats in charge of
         our yams again.

         It is well with
         Nigeria.

         Please give it wide
         publicity till it gets
         to them directly or
         indirectly.

© Citizens Against Yam 
       Eaters Publication.

TARIHIN TSOFFIN BIRANEN HAUSA: BAƊARI DA GOƊIYA


Tarihin Tsoffin Biranen Hausa: Baɗari da Goɗiya.

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwazo
08060869978

A mafi ingancin zance, maguzawa ne suka fara kafa garuruwa a kasar hausa. Muna iya cewa ma sune asalin hausawa. Amma dai, bari kuji abinda muka samu daga tarihin waɗannan tsoffin garuruwa guda biyu.
Garin Baɗari.
Wannan gari yana da tsohon tarihi. Ya kamata kuma a sanyashi a sahun tsoffin biranen hausawa.
Tarihi ya nuna cewa, wani bamaguje mai suna Bugau shine wanda ya kafa wannan tsohon gari shekaru da dama da suka gabata. Ance garin ya riganyi Garuruwan Goɗiya dana Kano da kafuwa. Tsiransu da kano shekaru takwas ne, domin kuwa shi Bagauda daya kafa kano ance ai kanine ga Bugau.
Zuwa yanzu dai babu takamaimen tarihin daga inda Bugau da kaninsa Bagauda suka taho, babu labarin kabilar su kuma ko na iyayensu, amma dai labari ya nuna cewa su biyun duk 'yanuwan juna ne, kuma da hausa suke magana, tana iya yiwuwa ma Bagauda ya zauna a Baɗari kafin daga bisani ya tashi ya riski kano kuma har ya sareta ta zama gari.
Garin Baɗari daɗaɗɗe ne wanda za'a iya cewa ya kai kimanin shekaru dubu ɗaya da hamsin da kafuwa. Garin ya shahara a zamanin-da wajen sana'ar rini da bugu ta yadda har yanzu shashin shahararriyar karofin garin yananan. Sannan kuma alkarya ce a baya inda baki ke zuwa daga sassa mabanbanta.
Kasancewar mutanen garin sun bar tsohon garin izuwa sabo shekaru kimanin sittin da ɗaya da suka gabata, amma har zuwa yau akwai shacin ganuwa bai dusashe ba wanda ke nuna cewar garin yasha gwagwarmayar yaki acan baya. Sannan akwai shashin babbar fadar masarautar wadda akayi da ginin marmara, sai kuma shacin wata tsohuwar rijiya mai suna Fafagu shima yana nan har yau bai dusashe ba.
Bama iya nan ba, har yanzu ana iya shaida kushewar wani Mutum mai suna Garega a tsohon garin. Shidai Garega ance Bamaguje ne, daga kano yayi laifi aka koro shi. Dan haka dayayi yamma da kano da tafiya mai nisa sai ya riski Baɗari, sai kuwa ya zauna a garin har ajali ya sameshi. Bayan an binneshi a kushewa ne sai bishiyar Lalle tafito a saman kabarin nasa, wannan yasa wajen ya zama abin nuni gakowa. Kuma Koda yake zuwa yanzu an sare wancan lalle, amman dai an samu cewa kafin a sare shi idan mata sunyi kunshi da lallen baya kamawa.
Ance Fulani sunzo garin ne lokacin Jihadin Shehu Usmanu ɗan Fodio. Ga kuma yadda abin ya faru kamar yadda muka ji.
Akace akwai wani fulanin mutum Basulluɓe dake zaune a Adamawa mai suna Muhammadu Kigudu (ana kiransa Kigu) da sukayi rigimar sarauta a garinsu, sai bai samu wannan sarautar ba. Wannan tasa yayi fushi tare da tasowa dashi da wansa mai suna Gabbu, da dabbobinsu da kuma bayinsu izuwa sokoto wajen shehu Usmanu. Sun zauna da shehu babu jimawa sai aka basu shugabanci, inda shi Muhammadu Kigudu yazo ya zauna a garin Guɗe a matsayin shugaba, shikuma Gabbu ya zauna a garin Gwarzo a matsayin shugaba.
Daga bisani sai Kigudu ya dawo Baɗari da mulki. Ana kiran sarautar 'ɗan Badari'.
Bayan rasuwar sa kuma sai ɗansa Yusuf yayi sarauta. Shima bayan yarasu sai kuma aka danka sarauta a hannun wani mutum bafulatani jinsin Ruma dake kasar Katsina. Jikan wannan mutumi mai suna Abdullahi shine wanda ya ɗauke tsohon garin izuwa inda yake har zuwa yanzu, sai daga baya ne aka samu an maidowa da jinin Muhammadu Kigudu mulkin garin.
Abu ɗaya da zamu iya cewa yayi saura wanda kuma za'a iya tunawa dashi a tsohon garin Badari shine Tambari. Wanda akace yanzu haka yana masarautar getso sanadiyyar 'yar sarkin Baɗari da wani sarkin Getso ya taɓa aura, sai kuwaƴ ta tafi dashi izuwa can don a rinka kaɗa mata shi...

Saturday, 17 November 2018

KOKAWA: TARIHI DA TASIRI


KOKAWA: TARIHI DA TASIRI
DAGA SADIQ TUKUR GWARZO
Kokawa ba kurum wasa bane, al'ada ce da mutum yayo gado shekara da shekaru.
Wani masani Kendall Blanchard ya kalli kokawa a matsayin daɗaɗɗen wasa acikin abinda ya rubuta a littafinsa mai suna 'The Anthropology of sports: An Introduction' saboda duba da yadda yace mutanen farko sun rinka zana hotunan masu kokawa a jikin kogunan duwatsu da kuma tarin mutane suna kewaye dasu suna kallo.
Amma dai mafi yawan masana kimiyyar salsalar ɗan adam suna kallon kokawa a matsayin daɗaɗɗen abu wadda ake amfani da ita wajen gane jarumi a tsakanin mazaje ba kurum a matsayin wasa ba.
Zuwa yanzu, yana da wuya a iya faɗar inda aka soma kokawa, ko kuma waɗanda suka soma yinta. Amma dai, idan muka kalli abin ta fuskar addinai, muna iya hasashen cewa 'ya'yayen Annabi Adamu watau Habila da Kabila ne suka soma karawa a junansu bisa saɓanin fahimta daya shiga tsakaninsu. Har daga bisani ɗaya ya kashe ɗaya.
Yazo a rubututtukan masana kimiyyar salsalar ɗan adam cewa jinsin maza sunfi rashin-ji da rashin son zaman lafiya sama da jinsin mata, don haka a kusan kafatanin tarihi sune sukafi kara kokawa a tsakaninsu ba mata ba.
Wasu masanan kimiyya mata da miji masu suna Martin Daly da Margo Wilson ne suka samar da sunan 'Young Male Syndrome' domin nuna yadda matasa mazaje ke jin karfi a jikkunan su gami da saurin aukawa cikin yanayin gogayya ko karawa a tsakaninsu, ta yadda abubuwa irinsu kokawa kan shigo ciki domin kece raini.
Ma'ana, da akai alamun cewa tun asali, mutum ya soma kokawa ne ba domin wasa ba, sai dai bisa dalilai guda biyu:-
Na ɗaya shine Kece raini.
Na biyu kuwa shine samun daraja ko ganima.
Masanin halayyar ɗan adam Aaron Lukaszewski, yayi wani bincike game da dalilan dake sa mutane ke yawan faɗa a Junansu, inda a karshe ya karkare da cewa mafi yawan karfafan mazaje sukanso kece raini a tsakaninsu, don haka akwai yiwuwar kartai biyu majiya karfi su kaure da kokawa bisa karamin dalili a zahiri, amma a baɗini suna yin kokawar ne domin kece raini. Saɓanin jinsin mata daya lura da cewa karfafan cikinsu sunfi kawaici da hakuri, yayin da raunanan mata keda yawan son tsokana da tada fitina gami da amfani da hakora don tserar da kansu idan aka samu ɓacin rana.
Dangane da yin kokawa bisa rajin samun tagomashi kuwa, akwai kyakkyawan hasashen cewa mutanen da suka gabace mu sun sanya kokawa ne a matsayin hanyar gane wanda yafi wani jarumta, ta yadda duk wanda ya samu galaba kuma shine zai iya samun babbar tagomashi akan ɗanuwansa.
Yazo a tarihi yadda dakarun tsohuwar daular Girka data Misra ke shiga kokawa don auna kakkarfa da jurau a tsakaninsu. Haka kuma a daular katsina ta kasar Hausa, an samu cewar a wani lokaci ana iya zamowa sarkin wannan daula ne kaɗai ta hanyar kokawa.
Wani masanin kimiyyar tarihin ɗan adam mai suna Napoleon Chagnon yayi bincike kan wata kabilar daji da aka samo mai suna 'Yanomamo' wadda ke zaune a kasar Venezuela.
Suffofin waɗannan mutane da ayyukansu kusan irin na mutanen farko ne waɗanda akace sun fara rayuwa ne a afirka kimanin shekaru sama da dubu hamsin baya. Don haka ana iya cewa har zuwa yau kabilar Yanomamo na rike da al'adu ne kwatankwacin irin na mutanen farko da suke rufe tsiraicinsu da ganyaye.
A binciken na Napoleon, ya lura da cewa kabilar suna kiran jarumin cikinsu da suna 'Unokai', sunan dake cike da girmamawa ga mutumin da yake da karfin kare kabilarsa daga makiya.
Unokai yana zamowa mai yawan mataye, da yawan 'ya'yaye. Don haka burin kowanne namiji dake wannan kabilar shine ya zama kamarsa.
Wannan ke zama silar da yara tun suna kanana suke koyan kokawa, domin na farko su kece raini ga sa'anninsu, sannan na biyu idan girma yazo musu su samu lakabin Unokai tayadda zasu samu tarin girma acikin jama'arsu gami da mataye da 'ya'yaye.
Wannan shine babban tarihin da zamu rinka tunawa a koda yausjlhe idan muka kalli kokawa.
Na farko dai mu gane cewar asalinta an sanyatane domin auna wanda yafi wani jarumta a tsakanin mazaje.
Daga baya kuma sai aka rinka sanya darajoji akanta gami da mayar da ita gasa tayadda duk masu son mallakar girma, sarauta, mataye da 'ya'yaye da sauran abubuwan duniya masu daraja sai ace su shiga kokawa domin nema, wanda yayi rinjaye shine da nasara.
Sabo haka kokawa tsohuwar al'ada ce wadda mutum yayo gadonta shekaru da yawa da suka gabata. Shiyasa ake samunta cikin kusan kowacce kabila.
Abu na karshe shine, tsarin kokawa yana nan bai sauya ba. Domin har zuwa yau anfi yin kokawa ne a tsakanin mutane biyu domin samun wani abu mai amfani, kuma a tsakiyar tulin mutane masu shaidarwa.
Sai dai kurum akwai wayewa da tayi tasiri acikinta tayadda ake sanya alkali mai lura da lokaci gami da yanke hukunci, da sanya yashi ko kasa ta musamman a wurin yin kokawa, sai kuma samar da abin kiɗa domin karfafa guiwa gami annushuwa tsakanin masu kokawa da masu kallonsu.

Wednesday, 14 November 2018

Tarihi Abin Tunawa: Yadda Mulkin Mallaka a Nigeria ya kasance kafin bada 'yancin kai.

Tarihi Abin Tunawa: Yadda Mulkin Mallaka a Nigeria ya kasance kafin bada 'yancin kai.


 

Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo

Alhamdullah. Shekaru da dama da suka gabata, yankunan da suka hadu suka bada Kasa mai suna Nigeria, suna karbar bak'una daga sassa mabambanta na duniya.
A baya-baya nan, wajajen shekara ta 1807, lokacin da masarautar Edu ke kan sharafi, turawa na zuwa yankin domin dillancin bayi izuwa turai. Daga baya kuma sai turawa suka dira a lagos, sannan kamfanin su mai suna Royal Oil company ya wanzu a wajajen Shekara ta 1884 wanda mulkin wasu sassan kasar ya koma karkashin jagorancin George Taubman Goldie mai rike da shugabancin kamfanin kenan, shima kamfanin daga bisani ya gusa inda wasu kamfanonin suka kafu. A takaice dai, daga shekara ta 1900 kafin fara mulkin mallaka, kamfanoni biyu ke mulkar sassan Nigeria guda biyu, watau Southern Protectorant Company a kudu, sai kuma Northern protectorant Company a arewacin kasar, masu kamfanonin sun kasance turawan Ingila, sune kuma jagorori masu kula da siye da siyarwa a yankunan. Suna da sojoji da kayan yaki, tayadda suke amfani da karfinsu wajen maganin duk wata barazana.
Ance a shekarar 1884 ne yayin wata tattaunawa tsakankanin manyan kasashen duniya na wancan lokacin a birnin Berlin na kasar Jamus, akayi kasafin yankunan Afirka don fara gudanar musu da mulkin mallaka. Yankunan Nigeria na kudu da arewa duk sun fada ne a hannun turawan birtaniya, sabanin yankin Niger daya fada a hannun faransa da kuma yankin Cameroon daya fada hannun Jamus.
Kasancewar hakan, sai yasa Ingila tayi shawarar hade yankunan wuri daya. An fara wannan aiki tun a shekarar 1912, amma bai tabbata ba sai a shekarar 1914, a lokacin turawa sun kammala cinye duk wata masarauta kenan dake yankin da yaki. A lokacin kuma, sai aka baiwa tsohon shugaban Mulkin mallaka a Hongkong, Sir Lord Lugard mukamin gwamna janar wanda zai jagoranci mulkin arewaci da kudancin kasar bisa umarnin da zai rinka amsa daga can kasar ta ingila. Hakan na nufin Ingila ta karbe ikon mulki daga hannun kowa, yanzu abinda takeso shi za'ayi a yankin.
Ance babban abin tunawa da Gwamna Lugard a iya zaman da yayi a Lagos yana shugabanci shine kokarinsa na dakatar da cinikin bayi da kuma tabbatar da yankunan sun zamo a hade. Masanan tarihi sun bayyana Lugard da mutum ne tsatstsaura wanda baya jure raini daga bakar fata. Sannan kuma duk da kasancewar sa ya taba rike mukamin gwamnan arewa a baya, ance yafi yiwa kudancin kasar aiki. Dalilin hakan na cikin wani tsari daya kafa bisa sahalewar ingila, cewa kowanne yanki zai rinka samun aikace-aikace ne bisa harajin da suke tarawa. A wancan lokacin ana samun haraji mai yawa daga hada-hadar giya a kudu, amma a arewa giya abar kyama ce saboda musulunci.
Matar Gwamna Lugard mai suna Flora Shaw wadda akace yar jarida ce ta kamfanin 'The Times' ta rinka taimakonsa wajen gudanar da mulki. Itace kuma akace ta lakabawa wannan kasa sunan Nigeria.
A zamanin mulkin Lugard ne yakin Adubi ya barke a kudancin kasar. Inda kabilar Egba ta yankin yarabawa suka dauki makamai tare da lalata titunan layin dogo (jiragen kasa) da kuma hallaka wasu turawa masu wakiltar ingila dake zama a yankin nasu. Dalilinsu nayin haka shine uzzura musu da akeyi wajen karbar haraji, da kuma tilasta musu bisa yin aiki ga turawa. Kamar misalin layin dogo, duk yan kasa turawan ke tursasa yin leburan cinsa cikin zafin rana da kishirwa.
Gwamna Lugard dai bai saurarawa mutanen nan ba. Inda ya taso rundunar soji tazo yankin ta yakesu, kuma taci galaba akansu. Allahu Akbar!
Gwamna Lugard ya rinka turawa Ingila bayanan duk wani abu dayayi a shekara. Wani Kundi mai suna 'Blue Book' a 'Encyclopedia Britannica' ya nuna yadda takardun nasa suka rinka kasancewa. A ra'ayinsa kuma, bai dauki bakar fata mutun kamar baturen ingila ba. Saboda yace bakaken fata nada rauni, idan kabasu fuska rainaka zasuyi. Idan kabasu dama kuma yakar ka zasuyi. Shiyasa ya hana baiwa bakar fata ko daya shugabanci a zamaninsa. Ya kirkiri majalisar zartaswa, amma babu bakar fata wakili koda guda daya, sai dai wata majalisa kurum ta jeka-na-yika daya kafa wadda aka tsulma sarakunan mulki aciki, sukuwa basu da ikon cewa kanzil wajen aiwatar wa, sai dai sujira umarni kurum daga gareshi.
A ranar 8 ga watan agusta na shekarar 1919 ne Sir Hugh Clifford ya amshi mulki bayan Lugard yayi ritayar aiki. Shikuwa abin tunawa ne ko don kundin tsarin mulki daya sabunta, daga wanda Lugard yayi izuwa sabo wanda ya baiwa 'yan k'asa kafar kirkirar jam'iyyu da kuma kamfanin jarida, da wannan damar Herbert Macaulay yayi amfani wajen kirkirar jam'iyyar siyasa ta farko a kasar nan maisuna 'Nigerian National Democratic Party'. Tare da kirkirar gidan jaridar 'west African Pilot'.
Baya da haka, kundin tsarin mulkin ya tanaji wata majalisar jeka-nayi-ka mai wakilai 46 wadda hudu daga cikinsu yan kasa ne suka zabo su daga yankin lagos da ibadan. Amma fa duk da haka, turawa nanan akan bakansu na cewar babu ruwan yan kasa da tsoma bakin su akan yadda ake mulkarsu. Domin babu bakar fata ko daya a sahun majalisar zartarwar sa, duk turawa ne. Sannan arewacin kasar ya cigaba da zamowa saniyar ware, wanda Gwamnati bata cika kula dashi ba a lokacin.
Ranar 13 ga watan nuwamban 1925 ya zama lojacin fara mulkin Sir Graemi Thompson a matsayin gwamna janar mai shugabantar hadaddiyar Nigeria. Shine wanda akace ya zagaya tun daga ikko har zuwa Borno a mota. Sannan ya samar da karin layukan dogo a sassan kasar, ba illa ma a arewa inda harajin gudanarwar aiyuka yayi karanci, amma ance sai rance akayo daga harajin da kudu ke samarwa wajen aiwatar da aiyukan da arewan ke bukata.
Bayan gushewar sa, sai Sir Donald Charles Cameron ya soma mulki a ranar 17 ga watan yuni na shekarar 1931. Ance Mutum neshi mai daraja bakar fata da son hadin kai. Yayi matukar kokari wajen ilimantar da yan Nigeria ilimin zamani ta hanyar bude makarantu a sassan kasar tare da samar da malamai daga turai. An ma taba jiyoshi yana cewa " Mun zo nan Afirka ne a madadin Kasar Birtaniya domin mu koyar da 'yan Afirkan yadda zasu dogara da kansu. Da zarar wannan muradi ya cika, wajibin mune mu gusa gefe. Hakan kuwa zai dauki tsawon lokaci kafin mu cimmasa, amma kafin nan, dole ne duk abinda zamuyi, muyishi bisa wannan muradin" (Extract ID:4918, Wikipedia-Britannica).
Bayan shi sai Sir Bernand Henry Bourdillon, wanda ya soma mulki a ranar 1 ga watan nuwambar 1935. Shi kuwa ya kamata a tuna dashi ko-dan yadda ya janyo sarakunan arewa masu zaman saniyar ware a gudarwar mulki izuwa cikin mulki. Ya ziyarci manyan sarakunan arewa, ya fada musu cewa ba dai-dai bane rashin tsulma bakunan su a salon gudanar war kasarnan, sannan ya shaida musu irin illar da hakan ke iya samarwa. Ance ya fahimci cewa turawan mulki basu cika kula da arewacin kasar ba saboda dalilai biyu; Na farko, tun sanda Sir Lugard yana mulki ya baiwa ingila shawarar cewa abu ne mai wuya yan arewa su mika kai dari-bisa-dari ga turawan mulki, don haka zaifi kyau a mulki arewa ta hannun sarakunan ta. watau sarakuna na mulkar talakawa, turawa kuma na mulkar sarakuna (sabanin a kudanci da turawan ke mulki kai tsaye ga talakawa). Sannan kuma Lugard din ya fahimci jinin yakibda son shugabanci a jinin al'ummar hausa-fulani, shiyasa yake ganin idan aka basu dama zasu yiwa turawan mulki bore. Abu na biyu kuwa shine karancin harajin dake fitowa a yankin.
Don haka, Sir Bourdillon yayi kokari wajen samar da makarantun zamani a yankin arewa, amma dai manufarsa ta ilimantarwa bata cimmu ba tunda kakannin mu lokacin suna k'in bature da kuma kin duk wani abu daya kawo na sauyi a wancan zamani.
Daga nan sai Sir Arthur Richard ya amshi mulki a shekarar 1943. A lokacin mulkin sane yan kasa (mafi yawa daga kudancin kasar) suka fara kiraye-kirayen abasu 'yancin kai. Hakan ya samu ne saboda an fara wayewa, an samo baiwa wasu kasashen yancin kai, sannan uwa-uba, gwamnan yana da sauki kuma. Shiyasa turawa suke kiran Sir Arthur da lusari, saboda acewar su sanyin sane yasa har aka fara yin wannan ikirari. Abin tunawa a mulkinsa shine ya samar da sabon kundin tsarin mulki a wanda ya raba kasar izuwa sassa uku, gabas, kudu da arewa. A lokacin sane kuma yakin duniya na biyu ya auku, don haka bai samu nutsuwar aiwatar da manyan aiyuka ba.
A shekarar 1948 kuwa Sai sir John Stuart MacPherson ya amshi mulki, wanda ya mukki kasar har izuwa shekara ta 1955. Shima dai ya sabunta kundin tsarin mulki wanda aka sawa suna 'MacPherson constitution'. Koda yake, ance tsarin mulkin baiyiwa wasu dadi ba, hakan yasa Jam'iyyar NCNC ta tattara kudade daga hannun 'yan kasa ta tura ingila akayi kara, daga bisani ingila ta soke kundin. Sannan yayi sassauci wajen sauya sunan wasu yankuna da kadarorin gwamnati daga sunayen da turawa suka sanya wanda yafi musu dadi, izuwa sunayen da yarukan wurin suka fi ganewa. Abinda a turance ake kira 'Africanization'.
Sir James Wilson shine Gwamna janar na karshe a tarihin mulkin mallaka a Nigeria. Ya soma mulki ne a ranar 15 ga watan yuni na shekarar 1955, sannan ya mika mulki a hannun Mr. Nmandi Azikwe, wanda yake shine bakar fata na farko dan Nigeria, daya fara mulkin kasar, a ranar 16 ga watan nuwamba na shekarar 1960.
Ance Sir Robertson bayan komawar sa gida, ya shiga damuwa da takaici bisa yadda 'yan afirka suka rushe duk wani asasin gina kasa da turawa suka kafa musu a iya zaman su a kasashen Afirka suka shiga yake-yake da juna tare da neman yancin kai a tsakanin su. Ya fadi hakan karara a littafin sa mai suna 'Africa in Transition: From direct rule to Independence, wanda aka buga a shekarar 1974. ya kuma fadi cewar 'yan afirka sunyi kusskuren neman 'yanci tun da farko, domin abinda suka sani yanzu (na yake-yake da almundahna) basu sanshiba a baya, shiyasa tun a lokacin suka rinka matsa lambar korar turawa tare da karbar yancin kai, shiyasa kuma muka yanke shawarar basu abinda suke so..
Wannan dai shine takaitaccen zance game da Shugabannin mulkin mallaka a Nigeria.
Da fatan Allah ya albarkaci wannan kasa tamu da zaman lafiya da kuma yalwar arziki. Amin
Daga Sadiq Tukur Gwarzo
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